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Leukemia Leukemia strikes all ages and both sexes. In 1995 approximately 20,400 people died from Leukemia. The all time five year survival rate is 38%. This rate has gone to 52% in the mid 1980’s. Approximately 25,700 cases were reported in 1995 alone(American Cancer Society-leukemia, 1995). Leukemia is a form of cancer in the blood cells. Most forms of Leukemia occur in the white blood cells. These abnormal cells reproduce in large quantities and look and perform differently than normal cells(M
Life of Octopus Dofleini Introduction This is a research report on octopuses in general, however will focus in on a particular species of octopus, the North Pacific Giant or octopus dofleini , which is a bottom dwelling octopus that lives on coasts of the pacific ocean, from California to north Japan. This report will cover the habitat, and lifestyle of this amazing mollusk, that is so often misunderstood. The octopus is a very intelligent, and resourceful invertebrate whose natural abilities sh
Lipids The subject I will cover is lipids. I will tell you about the description of it’ s organic compound. I will tell you where it is found. I will tell you what the uses are in plants and animals. I will also tell you about it’s chemical structure and give examples of types of these compounds, such as cholesterol. The organic compound of lipids have many similarities. They are almost always greasy, fatty, oily, or waxy. They do not dissolve in water, but they do in other organic solvents. Thi
Lucid Dreaming Dreams are the playground of the mind. Anything can happen when one is dreaming. The only limitation is that we only rarely realize the freedoms granted to us in our dreams while we have them. Lucid dreaming is the ability to know when one is dreaming, and be able to influence what will be dreamt. A normal dream is much like passively watching a movie take place in your skull. In a lucid dream, the dreamer is the writer, director, and star of the movie. Lucid dreams are exceptiona
Mad Cow Disease Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), better know as Mad cow disease is a relatively new disease. Most sources state that BSE first showed up in Great Britain in 1986 [Dealler p.5] but some say it popped up in 1985 [Greger p.1]. However the official notification was not until 21 June, 1988 [Dealler stats. p.1]. Spongiform encephalopathies are invariable fatal neurodegenerative diseases and there is no treatment nor is there a cure for this disease [Greger p.1]. The recent scare
Malaria Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, and fossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malaria’s vector has existed for just as long. The parasites causing malaria are highly specific, with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year, 300,000,000 people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent of these people die, there are still an estimated 1,500,000 deaths per year. While Malaria was one of the first i
The Roswell Incident Forty-seven years ago an incident occurred in the southwestern desert of the United States that could have significant implications for all mankind. It involved the recovery by the U.S. Military of material alleged to be of extraterrestrial origin. The event was announced by the Army Air Force on July 8, 1947 through a press release carried by newspapers throughout the country. It was subsequently denied by what is now believed to be a cover story claiming the material was n
Male Circumcision: A Social and Medical Misconception University of Johns Hopkins Introduction Male circumcision is defined as a surgical procedure in which the prepuce of the penis is separated from the glands and excised. (Mosby, 1986) Dating as far back as 2800 BC, circumcision has been performed as a part of religious ceremony, as a puberty or premarital rite, as a disciplinary measure, as a reprieve against the toxic effects of vaginal blood, and as a mark of slavery. (Milos & Macris, 1992)
Manatee The manatee popularly called the sea cow is any of the species of large water animals in the genus Trichechus. There are three species of manatee with T. inunguis found in the Amazon and Orinoco river systems; T. manatus is found in central Florida and along the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coasts; and T. senegalenis found in the rivers of tropical West Africa. A manatee is a slow moving, seal shaped mammal that lives in shallow coastal waters where rich plant grows. It usually is at hom
Melatonin And The Pineal Gland Set deep in our brains is a tiny gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland is in charge of the endocrine system, the glandular system that controls most of our bodily functions. The pineal runs our Œbody clocks\', and it produces melatonin; the hormone that may prove to be the biggest medical discovery since penicilin, and the key to controlling the aging process. The pineal gland controls such functions as our sleeping cycle and the change of body temperature
What Are The Major Components of Biological Membranes And How Do They Contribute To Membrane Function?. Summary. The role of the biological membrane has proved to be vital in countless mechanisms necessary to a cells survival. The phospholipid bilayer performs the simpler functions such as compartmentation, protection and osmoregulation. The proteins perform a wider range of functions such as extracellular interactions and metabolic processes. The carbohydrates are found in conjunction with both
Memory Memory is defined as the faculty by which sense impressions and information are retained in the mind and subsequently recalled. A person’s capacity to remember and the total store of mentally retained impressions and knowledge also formulate memory. (Webster, 1992) "We all possess inside our heads a system for declassifying, storing and retrieving information that exceeds the best computer capacity, flexibility, and speed. Yet the same system is so limited and unreliable that it cannot co
Gregor Mendel\'s Theories of Genetic Inheritance Gregor Mendel played a huge role in the underlying principles of genetic inheritance. He grew up in a Augustinian brotherhood where he learned agricultural training with basic education. He then went on to the Olmutz Philisophical Institute and then entered the Augustinian Monestary in 1843. After 3 years of theological studies, Mendel went to the University of Vienna where he was influenced by 2 professors, the physicist Doppler and a botanist na
Minerals By: Nick Hirschmann October 25, 1996 Minerals are natural compounds or elements of inorganic nature. There are 92 naturally occuring elements that have specific physical properties, definite chemical composition, and characteristic atomic structure. You can also find between 2,000 to 2,500 minerals in the earths crust. Minerals are formed in a positive response to their environment, most of them to deep for an observer. Environments in which minerals are formed far beneath the earths su
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis is an infectious disease of humans in which the blood and tissues contain mononuclear leukocytes (white blood cells with only one nucleus), either monocytes or lymphocytes. An infectious disease is a disease that can give you an infection, can be transmitted by infection without actual contact, or can be caused by a microorganism. All species of animals are afflicted with infections caused by a wide variety of organisms, from submicroscopic viruses to wormlike parasit
How Moods Are Affected By The Sun Jared Sousa 1/20/96 Descriptive Research Thesis: The amount of sun people receive affects their mood. A young woman lies asleep on a cold, overcast winter morning. At 4 A.M., a faint incandescence radiates from a light bulb placed near her bed. The light gradually gains intensity and covers until 6 A.M., when the woman awakes. She had just experienced a simulated dawn of a new day. After being treated with this for several days, the woman\'s annual winter depres
Morality and the Human Genome Project Does the Human Genome Project affect the moral standards of society? Can the information produced by it become a beneficial asset or a moral evil? For example, in a genetic race or class distinction the use of the X chromosome markers can be used for the identification of a persons ethnicity or class (Murphy,34). A seemingly harmless collection of information from the advancement of the Human Genome Project. But, lets assume this information is used to explo
The Search for Black Holes: Both As A Concept And An Understanding For ages people have been determined to explicate on everything. Our search for explanation rests only when there is a lack of questions. Our skies hold infinite quandaries, so the quest for answers will, as a result, also be infinite. Since its inception, Astronomy as a science speculated heavily upon discovery, and only came to concrete conclusions later with closer inspection. Aspects of the skies which at one time seemed like
Multiple Births Multiple births are rare in humans with twins as being the most common form of this event. Multiple births can arise in many different combinations of ways but the probability of giving birth to more than one child remains fairly constant when compared to the entire human race. The chances of multiple births can also vary from race and genetic background. Scientist and researchers do not know what the exact cause of these variations is but many of them feel that it is caused by h
Murder, Rape, and DNA Jonathan Dewees February 16, 1997 DNA is the information needed by a cell in order to reproduce an identical offspring. In some crimes detectives have no evidence or fingerprints to tell who had committed a crime. Now there is a way of finding who has committed the crime by a method called DNA Typing. DNA Typing is finding bacteria or blood on clothing or skin and amplifying the gene. This process was pioneered in the 1980\'s by a Scientist named Alec Jeffreys. If blood, sp
Muscle Growth Introduction With the introduction of such modern conveniences such as the automobile, remote control, and even the electric toothbrush people are relying on technology to do everything for them. With a generation growing up in todays society physical tasks have almost become obsolete. Tasks such as even going shopping and going out to visit a friend can be done from the comfort of your own computer. With this sedentary lifestyle, muscular size will almost be unnecessary, except fo
New Developments or Research in Genetic Cloning: Summary Since genetic cloning is a very wide topic, the focus of my paper lies mainly on the new discoveries which might be beneficial to human beings. The focus of the first section of the paper is on the various cloning techniques geneticists use nowadays. They techniques included range from the simplest and suitable for all situations, to complicated and suitable for certain areas. The second section of the paper, the longest section, discusses
Nursing: Lifting, Transferring and Positioning of Patients Lab Report Student No. xxxxxxxxx} Group No. x} Marker\'s Name: xxxxx xxxxxxxx} ABSTRACT Lifting, transferring and positioning of patients is frequently undertaken by nurses on each working day. This is necessary for patient comfort, medical reasons and completion of self care needs. Lifting can be done in numerous ways. As well as the nurse physically lifting or moving patients, a number of devices are also available to assist in the tra
On Darwin\'s Theory of Natural Selection Dale Anderson AP Biology February 3, 1997 Whether it is Lamarck\'s theory that evolution is driven by an innate tendency towards greater complexity, Darwin\'s theory of natural selection, or the belief that the evolution of plant and animal life is controlled by a higher being, the process of evolution cannot be denied. Archaeological investigations have proven that species evolve over time, but the unanswered questions are " How?" and "Why?" The answer l
Marijuana: Opponent\'s Factual Brief OPPONENT\'S BRIEF Factual Proposition: Consuming marijuana is detrimental to one\'s health. Definition of key terms: 1. Consumption= Smoking or eating marijuana. 2. Marijuana= Psychoactive mind altering substance, also known as cannabis. 3. Detrimental= Serious harm. Primary Inference: Smoking or eating marijuana is likely to create serious health problems for most individual users or society. Overview: Since the 1920\'s supporters of marijuana prohibition ha
Orangutans Tim Sanderson Anth 111 In Malay orang means "person" and utan is defined as "forest\'. Thus Orangutan literally means "Person of the Forest". Orangutans are found in the tropical forests of Sumatra and Borneo. They are the most arboreal of the great apes and move amongst the safety of the trees from one feeding site to the next. They are so well adapted to arboreal life that they cannot place their feet on the ground, instead they walk on the outside of their curved foot. There is a s
Sunrise on the Veldt: Order Order is sought instinctively. In Literature, as well as Biology, order is sought instinctively by authors and scientists. Authors use order to convey real-life incidents and make their stories seem more realistic. Scientists use a way of classification to bring order to Biology. The life cycle, as the cycle of a virus, shows order. The young boy in the short story, "Sunrise on the Veldt," found order in the life cycle. He sought this order to help him explain the dea
Facts about Orthoptera Where they live. Field crickets, the familiar black or brownish crickets are often abundant in meadows and fields. Also in dwellings or in small clusters in the ground. Tree Crickets are more often heard then seen. Usually colored green these slender crickets live in shrubs and trees. Mole Crickets can burrow rapidly through moist soil. They also can live in caves, hollow logs, beneath stones, and other dark moist places. Grasshoppers are also part of this group. They ofte
The Tragic Challenger Explosion The Tragic Challenger Explosion Space Travel. It is a sense of national pride for many Americans. If you ask anyone who was alive at the time, they could probably tell you exactly where they were when they heard that Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the Moon. But all of the success in our space programs is overshadowed by tragedy. On January 28, 1986, one of the worst disasters in our space program\'s history occurred. Many people were watching at th
PCR And Its Use Often times, scientists only have a small amount of DNA to deal with when doing genetic research or studies. In these situations, scientists can do one of several things. One is to just try to work with it anyway, but this is nearly impossible (depending on how much there is). Ther are a couple other processes they can use, or they can use PCR. PCR is one of the more complicated, but reliable ways to do tests on DNA when they only have a small amount to begin with. PCR, or Polyme
Photosynthesis Matt Lazar 5/13/96 8th Hr. When you and me eat, we find our food. When plants eat, they make their own food and energy. They make their food and energy through a process called photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis oxygen is also produced. Photosynthesis is "a process in which green plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water....The reverse of this reaction provides energy for plants, for animals that eat plants, for animals that eat animals that eat plants" for
The Pituitary Gland and Dwarfism The Pituitary Gland is situated at the base of the brain and it produces hormones which control growth. Too large an amount of these hormones causes giantism, a condition where facial features, hands, etc. become abnormally large. Too little causes dwarfism, where the overall stature of a person is very small. Dwarfism is the condition of being undersized, or less than 127 cm (50 in) in height. Some dwarfs have been less than 64 cm (24 in) in height when fully gr
Plagues and Epidemics Humans are remarkably good at finding a religious scapegoat for their problems. There has always been someone to blame for the difficulties we face in life, such as war, famine, and more relevant, disease. Hitler blames the Jews for economical woes in a corrupt Germany long after the Romans held the Christians responsible for everything wrong in a crumbling, has-been empire. In the fourteenth century, when Plague struck Europe, it was blamed on "… unfavorable astrological c
Prader-Willi Syndrom Prader-Willi Syndrome is a serious genetic disorder that begins at birth with no known cure ; causing mental retardation,short stature,low muscle tone,incomplete sexual development,and its main charecteristic,the desire to eat everything and anything in sight. Prader-Willi syndrome was first known as Prader-Labhart-Willi Syndrome after three Swiss doctors who first described the disorder in 1956. The doctors described a small group of kids with obesity, short stature and men
The Prairie An ecoysystem is all the biotic and abiotic components of an environment. The prairie is located in North America. The tempaturevaries greatly and the environment doesn\'t get enough rainfall to support trees. One organism in the ecoysystem that adapts well is grass which withstands grazing animals and occasional fires. Producer: An autotroph organism (grass). Consumer: Organism that eats producers (caterpillars, bison). Primary consumer: Organisms that eat consumers (chicken, meadow
The Praying Mantis (Mantis Religiosa) Contents Introduction Classes First Things First Key Features Basic Features Diet & Combat Style Reproduction Growth & Development Self-Defense Cultural Significance Praying Mantis Kung-Fu INTRODUCTION "Praying Mantis" is the name commonly used in English speaking countries to refer to a large, much elongated, slow-moving insect with fore legs fitted for seizing and holding insect prey. The name, "Praying Mantis" more properly refers to the specific Mantid s
Predator - Prey Relationships The relationship between predators and their prey is an intricate and complicated relationship; covering a great area of scientific knowledge. This paper will examine the different relationships between predator and prey; focusing on the symbiotic relations between organisms, the wide range of defense mechanisms that are utilized by various examples of prey, and the influence between predators and prey concerning evolution and population structure. Symbiosis is the
Prions Prions have been a mistery for scientists from the day they where discovered. Prions act like viruses but they are not. Their structure and chemistry are unknown. They are believed to be proteins but that is yet to be completely proved. Prion stands for “proteinaceous infectious particles”. Prions are known to cause many diseases involved with nervous systems like the brain. They are the ones that cause the well known “ mad cow ” disesase in Britain and “scrapie” for animals. For humans t
Properties of Water Water is essential for life as we know it on earth. It is used by plants and animals for basic biological processes which would be impossible without the use of water. The origin of all life can be traced back to the water in the Earth\'s precambrien seas. Water is also the universal solvent. It reacts with more elements and compounds than any other substance known to man. Water is a polar molecule made up of on atom of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen. It is attracted to its
UFOs "Little Green Men", "Martians", "Outer Limits" ! That is what people think about when aliens and UFOs come to mind. Aliens have been around, as far as we can see, since 1561. The question is now asked, How come because they [UFOs] have been sighted, encountered, and taken hostage; Why have we been kept in the dark by our governments? "Since UFOs were considered a security risk, the report on these sightings was originally classified as secret (Kadrey 22)." The name \'flying saucer\' was \'c
Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is the process by which genetic information from the DNA stored in the nucleus is transferred to the ribosomes where it is used to arrange amino acids into proteins. The DNA molecule in the nucleus is unzipped by an enzyme called polymerase. From one of these single strands of a DNA molecule, a mRNA molecule is built. This is accomplished by an enzyme which travels along a portion of DNA between two exons and attaches the opposing base pairs to the backbone of
Rabies Rabies is an infectious disease of animals which is a member of a group of viruses constituting the family Rhabdoviridae. The virus particle is covered in a fatty membrane, is bullet-shaped, 70 by 180 nanometres and contains a single helical strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Although rabies is usually spread among domestic dogs and wild carnivorous animals, all warm-blooded animals are susceptible to infection. The virus is often present in the salivary glands of infected animals, referre
Acid Rain Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United States. In Canada, th
Mitochondria Mitochondria are responsible for energy production. They are also the responsible location for which respiration takes place. Mitochondria contain enzymes that help convert food material into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which can be used directly by the cell as an energy source. Mitochondria tend to be concentrated near cellular structures that require large inputs of energy, such as the flagellum. The role of the mitochondria is very important in respiration. In the presence of o
Respiratory Diseases Respiration is the process of taking in and using oxygen. There are three different phases of respiration: external respiration, internal respiration, and cellular respiration. External respiration is the intake of oxygen from the environment and the release of carbon dioxide. In internal respiration, oxygen is carried to the cells and carbon dioxide is carried away from the cells. In cellular respiration, oxygen is used in chemical reactions within the cells. Some Diseases
Vegetarians Hugh Buchanan Growth problems. Animal population problems. Disease. These are all problems caused by being a vegetarian, that is, one who only eats vegetables. There are different degrees of being a vegetarian. To one extreme, is a person who eats nothing associated with animals (no yogurt, ice-cream, or even anything that has come in contact with meat or another animal). The opposite are those who just eat vegan most of the time and will still eat animal bi-products. Then there are
Schizophrenia Child schizophrenia, like other psychopathologies has many documented, and several uncertain causes. Some scientists have evidence that pregnant mothers have experienced an immune reaction that present dangers to the unborn child. Schizophrenia is a disorder where the body=s immune system attacks itself. Schizophrenia is not present at birth but develops during the adolescence period or young adulthood. ASchizophrenia is a biological brain disease affecting thinking, perception, mo
Scoliosis Everyone\'s spine has curves. These curves produce the normal rounding of the shoulder and the sway of the lower back. A spine with scoliosis has abnormal curves with a rotational deformity. This means that the spine turns on its axis like a corkscrew. Scoliosis is a curvature of the spine which may have its onset in infancy but is most frequently discovered in adolescence. It is more common in females by a 2:1 ratio. However, when curves in excess of 30 degrees are evaluated, females
Seasonal Affective Disorder Seasonal Affective Disorder, or SAD, is a common problem of people living in northern United States. People who are affected by this disorder commonly suffer from depression, lethargy, inability to concentrate, overeating and weight gain. People from the north tend to suffer more from this disorder because of the shortened days. It appears, that due to the deficiency of sunlight some people suffer from these symptoms. The shortened days have a hormonal effect on the b
Sharks "It’s tail swayed slowly from side to side, pushing the hunters body through the murky water. All signs of motion were non-existant, except for the rhythmic movement of the water over the five gill slits on either side of it’s head. Slowly gaining speed, the shady figures unmoving eyes fixed on it’s target, a lost harbor seal pup. As the distance between the predator and it’s prey grew closer, the jaws of the massive fish drew forward, exposing nearly eight rows of razor sharp teeth. Stri