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Stress and How To Manage It Everyone has stress, and we all have different stressors. Each person has their own way of coping with stress. some ignore their problems while others face them head on. There are four types of stressors and we all experience them at some point in our lives. One of these stressors is hassles. Hassles are a part of everyday life, but if they aren\'t coped with, they an cause major problems. One hassle in my life is me being constantly sick all of the time. Lately, I ha
Superconductivity INTRODUCTION We\'ve all heard about superconductivity. But, do we all know what it is? How it works and what are its uses? To start talking about superconductivity, we must try to understand the how "normal" conductivity works. This will make it much easier to understand how the "super" part functions. In the following paragraphs, I will explain how superconductivity works, some of the current problems and some examples of its uses. CONDUCTIVITY Conductivity is the ability of a
Surface Tension My problem was to find out how to test or measure surface tension. I think the reason of some of the force in surface tension is cohesion and gravity. Surface Tension is the condition existing at the free surface of a liquid, resembling the properties of an elastic skin under tension. The tension is the result of intermolecular forces exerting an unbalanced inward pull on the individual surface molecules; this is reflected in the considerable curvature at those edges where the li
The Telephone The telephone itself is a rather simple appliance. A microphone, called the transmitter, and an earphone, called the receiver, are contained in the handset. The microphone converts speech into its direct electrical analog, which is transmitted as an electrical signal; the earphone converts received electrical signals back to sound. The switch hook determines whether current flows to the telephone, thereby signaling the central office that the telephone is in use. The ringer respond
The Big Bang and The Steady State Model It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being,
The Chaos Theory Where Chaos begins, classical science ends. Ever since physicists have inquired into the laws of nature, the have not begun to explore irregular side of nature, the erratic and discontinuous side, that have always puzzled scientists. They did not attempt to understand disorder in the atmosphere, the turbulent sea, the oscillations of the heart and brain, and the fluctuations of wildlife populations. All of these things were taken for granted until in the 1970\'s some American an
The Nuclear Power Debate In 1953, nuclear energy was introduced into America as a cheap and efficient energy source, favoured in place of increasingly scarce fossil fuels which caused air pollution. Its initial use was welcomed by the general public, as it was hoped to lower the price of electricity, and utilise nuclear power for it\'s potential as a resource, not a weapon. However, as people became aware of the long term dangers involved in storing nuclear waste, it\'s use was criticised. Two a
Thoeries of Evolution Evolution is the process by which living organisms originated on earth and have changed their forms to adapt to the changing environment. The earliest known fossil organisms are the single-celled forms resembling modern bacteria; they date from about 3.4 billion years ago. Evolution has resulted in successive radiations of new types of organisms, many of which have become extinct, but some of which have developed into the present fauna and flora of the world (Wilson 17). Ev
The Creation of the Universe This paper will go over the creation of the universe. There are many theories about this issue. I will briefly summarize a few of them, and then give whatever evidence is available for or against each. There are many theories regarding the creation of the universe, for example, there is an ancient Egyptian legend that says that Osiris Khepera created himself out of a dark, boundless ocean called "Nu". Then out of this ocean, he created the universe. I will be writing
Frogs Frog is the common name for a species of amphibian that also includes toads. A very common question is “whats the difference between frogs and toads?” , the answer: none, except for the fact that toads lack the powerful legs that frogs have. “Where can frogs and toads be found?”, one might ask. They live in all parts of the world, except for Antarctica, but are mostly found in tropical areas. Frogs are small animals with smooth moist skin, and big eyes that can see in almost any direction.
The Physics Of Scuba Diving: Swimming with the Fish Have you ever wondered what it would be like to swim with the fish and explore the underwater jungle that covers two-thirds of the earth\'s surface? I have always been interested in water activities; swimming, diving and skiing, and I felt that scuba was for me. My first dive took place while on a family vacation. I came across a dive shop offering introductory dives, which immediately caught my interest. After much convincing (my parents), wit
The Real Threat of Nuclear Smuggling This reading was based on the controversy over the threat that nuclear smuggling poses. It begins by going over the view of each side in a brief manner. It states that some analysts dismiss it as a minor nuisance while others find the danger to be very real and probable. This reading stands mainly for the belief that nuclear smuggling is a real danger. The analysts that find this issue to be a problem say that nuclear smuggling presents grave and serious beca
The Truth About Physics and Religion Many people believe that physics and religion are separate entities. They claim that physics deals only with the objective, material world, while religion deals only with the world of values. It is obvious, from these, and from many other comparisons, that conflicts have arisen between physics and religion. Many are convinced that the two fields completely oppose each other, and are not related in any ways. Many people, who follow a particular religion, feel
Fungi: The Great Decomposers Although fungi are over looked in the commerical asspect of the world, they play a great rool in the web of life. In the fungi kingdom there are over 175,00 diffrent species. The main object of fungi is to decompose nutrients of plants and animals. History the history of fungi is not very clear because scientists have never realy wnt in great deepth , because fungi are not needed commericaly. the ancestors of fungi lived in shallow bodies of water about 600-800 milli
The Future of Human Evolution Alexander R. Prof. Kohn Darwinism and Evolution 12-6-96 Evolution, the science of how populations of living organisms change over time in response to their environment, is the central unifying theme in biology today. Evolution was first explored in its semi-modern form in Charles Darwin \'s 1859 book, Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. In this book, Darwin laid out a strong argument for evolution. He postulated that all species have a common ancestor f
Genetic Diversity In Agriculture Genetic variation is the raw material for the plant breeder, who must often select from primitive and wild plants, including wild species, in search of new genes. The appearance of new diseases, new pests, or new virulent forms of disease causing organisms makes it imperative that the plant be preserved, because it offers a potential for the presence of disease resistant genes not present in cultivated varieties. Also, there are demands for new characters-- for e
Genetic Engineering The engineering of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is entirely new, yet genetics, as a field of science, has fascinated mankind for over 2,000 years. Man has always tried to bend nature around his will through selective breeding and other forms of practical genetics. Today, scientists have a greater understanding of genetics and its role in living organisms. Unfortunately, some people are trying to stop further studies in genetics, but the research being conducted today will serv
Genetic Engineering, History and Future: Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply a
Genetic Observations Through The Studies of Hybrid Corn, Single Gene Human Traits, and Fruit Flies The basic foundation of modern genetics was led by Gregor Mendel (Corcos, 1993). Mendel was not the first to experiment with heredity, and our Lyman Briggs biology class will not be the last to deal with genetics. Genetics is the science of heredity. In our lab, we had three main objectives. First, we evaluated our data on monohybrid and dihybrid corn cross seed counts against Mendel’s theoretical
Genetic Engineering Bioengineering, or genetic engineering is an altering of genes in a particular species for a particular outcome. It involves taking genes from their normal location in one organism and either transferring them elsewhere or putting them back into the original organism in different combinations. Most biomolecules exist in low concentrations and as complex, mixed populations which it is not possible to work efficiently. This problem was solved in 1970 using a bug, Escherichia co
Transitions of Reptiles to Mammals A long long time ago, in a galaxy not too far away, was a little blue planet called Earth, and on this world not a single mammal lived. However a lot of time has past since then and we now have lots of furry creatures that are collectively called mammals. How did they get their? Where did they come from? These are the kinds of questions that led me to my subject of choice. I will endeavor to provide examples, using specific transitional fossils, to show that ma
Glossary and Definitions Distribution: Drug distribution is the process by which a drug reversibly leaves the blood stream and enters the interstitium (extracellular fluid) and/or the cells of the tissues. The delivery of a drug from the plasma to the interstitium primarily depends on blood flow, capillary permeability, the degree of binding of the drug to plasma and tissue proteins, and the relative hydrophobicity of the drug. Excipient: Vehicle. A more or less inert substance added in a prescr
The Future of NASA One hundred years from now, NASA\'s space program will not be so far advanced that people will be able to beam around the Universe or travel through time. However, unless something goes terribly wrong with the world, it is expected to advance tremendously. New, high-tech designs for rockets will make them more environmentally safe. Rockets will also be recycled and reused. Systems retrieving parts of rockets that are today, left behind in space, will be created. Astronauts wil
Can Computers Think? The Case For and Against Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence has been the subject of many bad "80\'s" movies and countless science fiction novels. But what happens when we seriously consider the question of computers that think. Is it possible for computers to have complex thoughts, and even emotions, like homo sapien? This paper will seek to answer that question and also look at what attempts are being made to make artificial intelligence (hereafter called AI) a
The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect, in environmental science, is a popular term for the effect that certain variable constituents of the Earth\'s lower atmosphere have on surface temperatures. These gases--water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4)--keep ground temperatures at a global average of about 15 degrees C (60 degrees F). Without them the average would be below the freezing point of H20. The gases have this effect because as incoming solar radiation strikes the
Gregor Johann Mendel Misja Prins Biology II I.B. Period 3 12/14/96 Gregor Mendel was one of the first people in the history of science to discover genetics. He independently discovered his work and lived in Brunn, Czechoslovakia. In Brunn he was a monk and later the Abbot of the church in Brunn. While he was in Brunn he performed many experiments with garden peas. With the information he observed he wrote a paper where he described the patterns of inheritance in terms of seven pairs of contrasti
ANIMALIA VERTEBRATA MAMMALIA CARNIVORA CANIDAE CANIS LUPUS AND ANIMALIA VERTEBRATA MAMMALIA CARNIVORA CANIDAE CANIS NIGER Introduction: Any person who has been able to catch a glimpse of any type of wolf is indeed a lucky man. The wolf is one of the earth\'s most cowardly and fearful animals, and it is so sly and, pardon the expression, foxy, that it is almost a waste of time to try and catch him in any kind of trap. Although he can be cowardly and fearful, he can also be one the most vicious an
Growth Dynamics of E. coli in Varying Concentrations of Nutrient Broths, pH, and in the Presence of an Antibiotic Dvora Szego, Elysia Preston Darcy Kmiotek, Brian Libby Department of Biology Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180 Abstract The purpose in this experiment of growth dynamics of E. coli in varying media was to determine which media produces the maximum number of cells per unit time. First a control was established for E. coli in a 1.0x nutrient broth. This was used to compar
Hammerhead Sharks Marine Science/ Per. 1 Sharks are one of the most feared sea animals. They live in oceans across the world but are most common in tropical waters. There are over three hundred fifty species of sharks. They can be broadly categorized into the following four groups: Squalomorphii, Squatinomorphii, Batoidea, and Galeomorphii. The shark family Sphyrnidae that includes the Hammerheads are part of the Galeomorphic classification. They are probably the most easily recognizable of all
Femoral Hernia A hernia is any type of abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it. A weak spot or opening in a body wall allows part of the organ or tissue to bulge through. Hernias may develop in almost any area of the body, but they most frequently occur in the abdomen or groin. Hernias are commonly called "ruptures," but this is a misnomer, as nothing is torn or ruptured. Hernias can be present from birth (congenital) or can be caused by
Homo Aquaticus? I. Introduction When the human brain is compared with the brains of apes there are several obvious differences; the centers for the sense of smell and foot control are larger in apes than in humans, but the centers for hand control, airway control, vocalization, language and thought are larger in humans. In my paper, I will describe the most defined differences of brain size and centers between humans and their closest relatives, chimpanzees, to compare them with other mammals an
Changes in the Atmosphere Causing Multicellularity About 2.5 billion years ago, oxygen began slowly to accumulate in the atmosphere, as a result of the photosynthetic activity of the cyanobacteria. Those prokaryotes that were able to use oxygen in ATP production gained a strong advantage, and so they began to prosper and increase. Some of these cells may have evolved into modern forms of aerobic bacteria. Other cells may have become symbionts with larger cells and evolved into mitochondria. As t
How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out. By Faisal Premji Science 10 Assignment -- Part B In a human being, nutrients are necessary for survival. But how are these nutrients obtained? This report will go into depth on how the food we eat gets into our cells, and how the waste products that we produce get out of the body. Also, the unicellular organism Paramecium will be compared with a human being, in terms of all of the above factors. Dietary Nutrients The chief nutrients in a diet are classified
Human Evolution and the Fossil Record Scientists continue to debate the history of man. It is generally agreed upon by the scientific community, however, that humans evolved from lesser beings, and this essay will function to provide evidence to support this claim. Several points will be outlined, including the general physical changes that occurred between several key species on the phylogeny of man, and a discussion of dating methods used to pinpoint the age of the fossils. This essay will beg
Nicolaus Copernicus His Life: Throughout history people have always looked up at the sky and wondered about the universe. Some just wonder while others attempt to solve this mystery. One of the people who had endeavored to solve it was Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus was born in the present day town of Torun, Poland in February of 1473. While still a young boy, Copernicus was put in custody of his uncle when his father died. His uncle made sure that his nephew got the best education they could o
The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information gathered by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the twenty-first century and will be of g
Huntington\'s Disease Huntington\'s disease, also known as Huntington\'s chorea is a genetic disorder that usually shows up in someone in their thirties and forties, destroys the mind and body and leads to insanity and death within ten to twenty years. The disease works by degenerating the ganglia (a pair of nerve clusters deep in the brain that controls movement, thought, perception, and memory) and cortex by using energy incorrectly. The brain will starve the neurons (brain cells), and sometim
Ibuprofen Abstract The project that I chose to research was the effect of Ibuprofen on the heart rate of the daphnia. The reason that I chose to do this was because many people in society use over the counter pain killers without really understanding any of the long term effects of this medicine other than clearing their aches pains, and swelling. One of the leading drugs on the market today is Ibuprofen which you may know as Motrin or Advil. Both drugs are identical except for quantity and pric
Impotency: New Therapy By Tony Gramazio As many as two-thirds of the men with impotency because of physical conditions, vascular disease, stress, trauma, surgery and diabetes, can probably have an erection again. A new treatment to help men has been thought to be found. It is less invasive than most other treatments. According to almost 60 medical centers all over the United States of America, the new approach has been found. Transurethral Alprostadil has enabled 64.9% of all men with erectile d
Insects Insects are neumerout invertebrate animals that belong in the Phylum Arthropoda and Class Insecta. The class Insecta is divided into 2 subclasses: Apterygota, or wingless insects, and Pterygota, or winged insects. Subclass Pterygota is futher divided on basis of metamorphosis. Insects that have undergone incomplete metamorphosis are the Exopterygota. Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis are the Endopterygota. Insects have an outer bilateral exoskeleton to which the muscles are att
Introns and Exons March 31 1997 AP. Biology essay The finding of the Introns and the exons was one of the most significant discoveries in genetics in the past fifteen years. split genes were discovered when lack of relation between DNA sequences were seen during. DNA- mRNA hybridation. For all new mRNA, they must be transcribed by RNA polymerase enzymes. The transcription begins at the promoter sequence on the DNA and works down, thus the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA is complimentary to the o
Investigation of Reproduction and Development in Animals Due Date: 12/9/96 Cycles, Conception and Contraception Fertility is the condition of being fertile. The aim of contraception is to inhibit fertility in individuals, hence, slowing population growth. The system by which all female contraception must operate: the menstrual cycle. What is the menstrual cycle? and what hormones are involved in controlling it? After puberty, the female produces an egg each month. Other changes take place on a c
Iron Absorption from the Whole Diet: Comparison of the Effect of Two Different Distributions of Daily Calcium Intake Todd Bowen Human Biology Today December 5, 1996 Hypothesis - If a woman distributes her daily intake of calcium by having less of it in her lunch and dinner meals and more in her breakfast and evening meals, then this would reduce the inhibitory effects calcium has on heme iron and nonheme iron absorption. Background Information - This experiment is one of many that addresses calc
Cryogenics: Is It Worth Waiting For Imagine being frozen in time to escape a deadly illness, then getting warmed when a cure is found. There is question on whether cryogenic methods should be used. To fully understand cryogenics a knowledge of cold, background information on some branches of cryogenics, some problems with cryopresevation, and different peoples views towards cryogenics is needed. "Cold is usually considered hostile to mankind. Most people hate cold and with reasons." If not caref
Recognizing Laboratory Safety Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to stay safe no matter what you\'re doing in lab. You may be working with dangerous materials such as glass or acid. Procedure: I am following the procedure described in pages 21-24 in the Biology Laboratory Manual. Observations: Does not apply to this lab Answers to Questions: 1. The flask symbol means glassware safety. Glassware can be broken easily. 2. The goggle symbol means that you are working with fire. It is extremely impo
Project Mercury Project Mercury, the first manned U.S. space project, became an official NASA program on October 7, 1958. The Mercury Program was given two main but broad objectives: 1. to investigate man’s ability to survive and perform in the space environment and 2. to develop basic space technology and hardware for manned space flight programs to come. NASA also had to find astronauts to fly the spacecraft. In 1959 NASA asked the U.S. military for a list of their members who met certain qual
The Language of The Cell MAY 3rd, 1996 SCIENCE 10 AP The cell is a complex and delicate system: It can be seen that the cell is the stage where everyday functions such as molecule movement, protein synthesis and tissue repair take place. All organelles within the cell are well rehearsed in their operations, but an error on an organelles behalf, can send the cell and it’s organelles into panic. The efficiency rate of the cell plummets down to a low level. It does take some time for the dust to se
Lassa Fever: An Old World Arenavirus ABSTRACT A brief summary of lassa fever, its history, pathology and effects on the indigenous populations. Also, lassa fever in the context of newly emerging diseases. LASSA FEVER On January 12, 1969, a missionary nun, working in the small town of Lassa, Nigeria, began complaining of a backache. Thinking she had merely pulled a muscle, she ignored the pain and went on about her business. After a week, however, the nurse had a throat so sore and so filled with
Leprosy Mike Wallis Leprosy or Hansen’s disease, is a chronic, infectious disease that mainly affects the skin, mucous membranes, and nerves. A rod shaped bacillus named Mycobacterium leprea, causes the virus. Mycobacterium leprea is very similar to the bacillus that causes tuberculosis. The reason Leprosy is also known as Hansen’s disease, is because it was first identified in 1874 by a Norwegian physician named Gerhard Henrik Armeur Hansen. Leprosy appears in both the Old and New Testaments. I
Leukemia Leukemia is a disease characterized by the formation of abnormal numbers of white blood cells, for which no certain cure has been found. Leukemia is also conditions characterized by the transformation of normal blood-forming cells into abnormal white blood cells whose unrestrained growth overwhelms and replaces normal bone marrow and blood cells. Leukemias are named according to the normal cell from which they originate, such as Lymphocyte Leukemia. Lymphocyte Leukemia is where a Lympho