Philosophy Page 11

Plato\'s Republic: THe Virtues I. The Virtues In Robin Waterfield\'s translation of The Republic,Socrates attempts to give a definition of justice. At the end of Book II he began a detailed description of the construction of a good city. The good city is a relation to the human soul, and its four virtues. In the following paper I will discuss the virtues, what they are and where they are found. Also discussed will be the foundation, arrangement, and the interconnectedness with each one. Next dis
Light and Darkness Found Within the Gospel of John and in Sophocles\' Drama Antigone As a child, my world was enraptured by the wonderful Fisher-Price toy known as the Lite-Brite. By inserting multicolored little pegs into their corresponding slots on a detailed guide, I could transform drab, dull, and dark pieces of paper into wondrous works of brilliant art. The light that filled and transformed the plastic pegs closely parallel concepts of light and darkness found within the Gospel of John an
To Tell or to Lie Maral Frendjian For modern students, a training in rhetoric such as that offered by Gorgias is more preferable, rather than learning how to distinguish truth from falsehood. It is the art of forceful language, emphasizing figures of speech and focusing on devices for swaying and persuading an audience, that would be most beneficial for students lives today. Despite the fact that it is simply ornamented language to make a good facade, the rhetoric by Gorgias is necessary for the
To What Extent Does the Nature of Language Illuminate Our Understanding of the Relation Between Knowledge of Ourselves and Knowledge of Others? More than any other thing, the use of language sets humankind apart from the remainder of the animal kingdom. There is some debate as to where the actual boundary between language and communication should be drawn, however there seems to be no debate as to the nature of Language, which is to communicate, using abstract symbols, the workings of one mind t
Transcendentalism: The Philosophy of the Mind Transcendentalism is the view that the basic truth of the universe lies beyond the knowledge obtained from the senses, a knowledge that transcendentalists regard as the mere appearance of things (Adventures 162). Transcendentalists believe the mind is where ideas are formed. The transcendentalist ideas of God, man, and the universe were not all original, but were a combination of other philosophies and religions. One of the major questions of philoso
The Allegory of the Cave: Turn Around Putting the Allegory of the Cave into my own words seems comparable to the Christian idea of using the lord\'s name in vain. First, I\'d like to introduce a phenomenon I have observed throughout my life time. I call it soul resonance. Bear with me here. When two objects emit sympathetic vibrations, the sound or force multiplies. Example: Two tuning forks of the same frequency are struck upon each other and held a few feet apart. The vibration is much stronge
Two Brands of Nihilism As philosopher and poet Nietzsche\'s work is not easily conformable to the traditional schools of thought within philosophy. However, an unmistakable concern with the role of religion and values penetrates much of his work. Contrary to the tradition before him, Nietzsche launches vicious diatribes against Christianity and the dualistic philosophies he finds essentially life denying. Despite his early tutelage under the influence of Schopenhauer\'s philosophy, Nietzsche lat
Understanding the Misunderstood Art From Different Cultures By Kate Woods Art is a medium used by people world wide to express their ideas, their fears, and their joys. The artist takes the experiences of life and translates them into a visual object, rich in colors, shapes and sizes, for all the world to observe. As a casual observer of art, one is able to relive the feeling or experience the artist was trying to display, if only for a brief moment in time. No matter what cultural background on
Dostoevsky\'s Crime and Punishment: Raskolnikov\'s Mathematical Evaluation of Moral Dilemma Presented To Him Exemplifies The Empirical View of Utilitarianism "One death, and a thousand lives in exchange--it\'s simple arithmetic." -Raskolnikov Raskolnikov\'s mathematical evaluation of the moral dilemma presented to him in Dostoevsky\'s Crime and Punishment exemplifies the empirical view of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism attempts to distinguish between right and wrong by measuring a decision based
Utopia Utopias are generally said to be societies in which the political, social and economic troubles hampering its inhabitants has been done away with. Instead the state is there to serve the people and ensure the peacefulness and happiness of everyone. The word utopia, which means "no place" in Greek, was first used to mean a perfect society in 1516 in the publication of Saint Thomas More\'s story "Utopia". The story depicted life as it was with its people and social institutions on an imagin
Virtues of My Life: Order, Courage, Patience In order to survive in 1996, there need to be at least some standards and goals of morality in a person\'s life. Moral excellence is definitely hard to achieve, but is definitely something to attempt. Personally, there are many distractions and obstructions the present day provides, creating a difficulty of direction in my own life. I need to overcome obstacles such as peer pressure in order to become a confident, successful person. The present day pr
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire): French Author and Philosopher 1694 - 1778 A.D. Francois Marie Arouet (pen name Voltaire) was born on November 21, 1694 in Paris. Voltaire\'s style, wit, intelligence and keen sense of justice made him one of France\'s greatest writers and philosophers. Young Francois Marie received an excellent education at a Jesuit school. He left school at 16 and soon formed friendships with a group of sophisticated Parisian aristocrats. Paris society sought his company for hi
The Capitalist Future: A Consequence of Calvinist Annunciation Anukool Lakhina ID 203, Lindholm Question #3 October 10th, 1996 In his work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber predicts that the future will be a world of "mechanized perfection" devoid of "religious and ethical meaning." In this world modern capitalism becomes a self sustaining system no longer needing the Calvinist religious impetus that had inspired the work ethic. Weber argues that the future will be a capi
We Are Not Alone Outline Thesis: We once believed that Earth is the only planet in the Universe that supports life. Today there is overwhelming evidence that not only suggests, but supports the very real possibility that we may share the Universe with other intelligent beings. I. Things in the Sky A. The First Documented Sighting B. The Fever Spreads 1. Pilot Encounters 2. The Lights in the Sky II. Dents in the Earth III. Unexplained Phenomenon A. The Writing on the Wall B. Geodes IV. What About
Welfare Reform: A Matter of Justice Medicaid. It is the United States Federal Government program to aid states in providing health care to the poor and impoverished who otherwise could not receive proper medical care. In 1995 the federal government spent a total of $77.4 Billion on Medicaid. This is up almost 300 percent from $20.1 Billion in 1984, only 10 years earlier. In the same 10 years state spending on Medicaid rose over 250 percent from $16.5 Billion to $58.2 Billion. Under the current M
What is Piety During the Periclean age (around 400 B.C.) in Athens Greece there was a man named Socrates. He was considered a very wise man by the Athenians. However there were men in power who did not care for him or his teachings; Claiming that he corrupted the Athenian youth and did not believe in the Greek gods, Socrates was put on trail. On his way to his trial Socrates met a man named Euthyphro, a professional priest who is respected by the "authorities" (those who want get rid of Socrates
The Question of an Answer: What It Is To Be Human The body is socially constructed; and in this paper we explore the various and ever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self......The one word, body, may therefore signify very different realities and perceptions of reality.....(Synnot 1992, 43) It has been said that in order to understand life and society, we as people must first understand ourselves. Who are we as a people? Who are we as individuals? Who are we as human
Assumption of Risk: Who is to Blame For Our Actions The doctrine of "assumption of risk" clearly defines the responsibility of all voluntary actions taken on by individuals, independent of the inherent risk or danger involved with such actions. Are we only to assume responsibility for the positive outcomes of our actions, without also accepting the negative outcomes as well? Most individuals only claim responsibility in cases in which they are fully responsible for their actions. Living within a
Humans And Their Ability To Make Mistakes In today\'s pop culture, there is one very popular view of the future. All humans will be free to do as they wish, because robots and computers will work for us. Computers are viewed as the ideal slaves. They work non-stop, never complain, and above all, never make mistakes. It is often said that computers don\'t make mistakes, that it is the person using the computer who commits errors. What is it that makes humans err, but not computers? I will prove t
Why Rome Fell (a condensed version) The sun had long ago set, the newborn moon peeked out from behind a scattering of thin, high clouds. From a vantage point atop one of seven hills I could see glimpses of how this great city must once have looked. The mammoth buildings seem to shed their long years and are once again as they were; huge, awe inspiring, it is as if a portal in time had opened and I am afforded a glimpse into what was Rome. What could have caused this once master of all cities to
Why Should I Be Moral? The question of morality proves to be a complex interrogatory. Should I be moral? If I should be, then why? Why is morality important to society? An assumption can be made that morals derive from a purely religious perspective or the Golden Rule approach. We are told that it is right to be moral. This is an ineffective answer, since it does not apply to someone outside the moral circle (Olsen, 79). This in mind, there is really no way to prove this too a person who wants t
Women, Men and Competition Loudly and often, women insist they don\'t like competition, and that competition is an act of aggression. Ironically, however, competition as aggression is inevitable in a society where men must compete for the attention of women. Women encourage this. Every time they passively wait for men to take the initiative, or reject nurturing men in deference to domineering men, they sustain the dynamic of dominance. Ignoring this, pop-feminists contend competition is the capi
Zen\'s Influence on the Art of the Sword Zen has long had a great influence upon Japanese culture. Many aspects of this culture are touched upon by Zen including art, literature, and specific ceremonies such as the one concerning tea. During the Kamakura period of Japan, another area of culture began to be affected by Zen; the martial arts of the samurai class. Somewhere along the line, the samurai realized the ease with which the monks of Zen Buddhism dealt with issues such as mortality and the
Absolute An elephant was brought to a group of blind men who had never encountered such an animal before. One felt a leg and reported that an elephant is a great living pillar. Another felt the trunk and reported that an elephant is a great snake. Another felt a tusk and reported that an elephant is like a sharp ploughshare. And so on. And then they all quarreled together, each claiming that his own account was the truth and therefore all the others false (traditional parable). None of the accou
Absolute Understanding An elephant was brought to a group of blind men who had never encountered such an animal before. One felt a leg and reported that an elephant is a great living pillar. Another felt the trunk and reported that an elephant is a great snake. Another felt a tusk and reported that an elephant is like a sharp ploughshare. And so on. And then they all quarreled together, each claiming that his own account was the truth and therefore all the others false (traditional parable). Non
Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Discrimination has always been a major issue in society. To address this issue certain rights were established like the Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Title VII states it shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer- 1 to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s ra
Agnostic I believe that I am agnostic because I don’t know what to think about religion. When it comes to saying whether I believe in God or not, I feel that I have not yet come to a complete understanding of God’s existence. This tends to be a vicious cycle which constantly runs through my head. Ever since I can remember, I was taught through my family and church that this being does exist, but as I grew older I began to question whether this almighty being really does exist. How can I believe
An Enquiry Concerning The Principles Of Morals What is a moral? This is a question that has plagued philosophers for many years. Is it possible to have a set of universal morals? There are many questions that surround the mystery of morals. They seem to drive our every action. We base our decisions on what is right and what is wrong. But what is it that actually determines what is right and what is wrong? Is it our sense of reason? Is it our sense of sentiment? This is a question that David Hume
Ancient Philosophy As Aristotle viewed the world around him, he observed that things are moving and changing in certain ways. Aristotle discovered that certain things cause other things, which in turn cause something else. Aristotle believed that an infinite chain of causation was not possible, thus, a prime mover of some kind must exist as the first cause of everything that changes or moves. The first evidence that Aristotle viewed was the world around him. He observed that everything is in mot
Animal Liberation Animal Liberation For Steve Kramer By Matt Young Philosophy 200 Why is it that we as a society condemn the actions of a man against a man but very rarely a man against an animal? I think this question must be understood if we are ever to change the rights animals have. As of yet I don\'t believe animals have any actual rights. Rather humans have rights that involve animals. If we are to truly allow animals to have rights the same or similar to humans then we must first define w
Anselm’s Philosophy Anselm\'s definition of a God starts by saying that God is the greatest being we can possibly think of. When Anselm states this, it essentially means that it is not possible to think of a being greater than God. Anselm also states that if God is the greatest thinkable being, he is referring to the fact that it would be impossible to imagine or to create in ones mind someone or something being better than God. Therefore, it would be impossible to say that God only exists in on
Antigone Antigone the play written by Sophocles deals with moral law vs civil law. King Creon has condemned Princess Antgione. Antgione went against the king’s decree and buried her brother Ploynices. Antgione now will be punished by starvation under King Creon’s decree. Antigone is a passionate, strong willed, and determined women. Antigone is a passionate character in the play we see this as we learn of her as we see her put moral law above civil law. An important ideal in Ancient Greece was t
Arguments Against The Design Experiment Nikki Tabacco Philosophy 100 048728607 Food For Thought… Do we dwell in a Universe Created by a Designer? The phenomenon of the creation of the universe has baffled many for some time. The question of whether or not a designer/God put together this most intricate world in a personal quest or project leaves many in great debate. Was life brought about by some evolutionary feat? Or, in opposition, did an intelligent being create life with perfection in mind?
Balance Of Power The Balance of Power Throughout the semester, a theme that has guided our thoughts has been the idea that the self is the capacity to have capacities. Through what we have read, written about, and discussed, we have been trying to come up with our own answers to the questions about the self; what a capacity is, how we find them, which ones are essential to human flourishing, what we do with them once they are found? Yet all of these questions lead us to answer that final and def
Buddhism\'s Four Noble Truths Sarfo K. Mensah Jr. Buddhism Paper 3/22/00 Siddharta Gautama was twenty-nine years of age when he abandoned his family to search for a means to bring to an end his and other’s suffering. He studied meditation with many teachers. At the age of thirty-five, Siddharta Gautama sat down under the shade of a fig or bo tree to meditate; he determined to meditate until he received enlightenment. After seven weeks he received the Great Enlightenment: the Four Noble Truths an
Capital Pannishment CAPITAL PUNISHMENT The Debate over the merits of capital punishment has endured for years, and continues to be an extremely indecisive and complicated issue. Adversaries of capital punishment point to the Marshalls and the Millgards, while proponents point to the Dahmers and Gacys. Society must be kept safe from the monstrous barbaric acts of these individuals and other killers, by taking away their lives to function and perform in our society. At the same time, we must insur
Carl Orff\'s Philosophies In Music Education While Carl Orff is a very seminal composer of the 20th century, his greatest success and influence has been in the field of Music Education. Born on July 10th in Munich, Germany in 1895, Orff refused to speak about his past almost as if he were ashamed of it. What we do know, however, is that Orff came from a Bavarian family who was very active in the German military. His father\'s regiment band would often play through some of the young Orff\'s first
Charles Darwin And Imperialism England went through dramatic changes in the 19th century. English culture, socio-economic structure and politics where largely influenced by the principles of science. Many social expressions occurred due to these changes. Transformations which categorized this time period could be observed in social institutions; for instance: the switch from popular Evangelicalism to atheism, emergence of feminism and the creation of new political ideologies (Liberalism, Conserv
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus was an Italian navigator who sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search for the all-water route to Asia, but instead achieved fame for making landfall in the Caribbean Sea. Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy. His father was a weaver, and it is believed that Columbus entered this trade as a young man. In the mid-1470s he made his first trading voyage to the island of Khios, in the Aegean Sea. Settling in Lisbon, where his brother
Common Pagan Rituals And Beliefs Paganism is an ancient type of religion which has quite an inauspicious reputation today. There are many types of paganism, most date back thousands of years, which include Wicca, Witchcraft, Paganism, and a few other lesser known and practiced variations. Yet all of these religions are similar and share common beliefs. Wicca is the most common of these, as it also demonstrates the shared belief of doing good that is common to most forms of paganism. Another comm
The New Internet Without a doubt, the Internet is undergoing a major transition as it experiences a tremendous influx of new users. Due to the anarchic, distributed nature of the net, we cannot even begin to enumerate the population of the Internet or its growth. As more of the world\'s population moves on-line, new concerns will arise which did not confront the earlier generations. The new culture will demand different resources, services and technology than the old generations expected and use
Communism Communism has long been heralded in capitalist countries as the root of all evil. However, as with all phobias, this intrinsic fear of communism comes from a lack of knowledge rather than sound reasoning. It is that same fear that gave the world the Cold War and McCarthy\'s Red Scare. The purpose of this paper is neither to support communism over capitalism nor the reverse of that. Rather, it is to inform the reader of communism\'s migration through time and hopefully assist the regres
Critique Of Bentham\'s Quantitative Utilitarianism Over time, the actions of mankind have been the victim of two vague labels, right and wrong. The criteria for these labels are not clearly defined, but they still seem to be the standard by which the actions of man are judged. There are some people that abide by a deontological view when it comes to judging the nature of actions; the deontological view holds that it is a person\'s intention that makes an action right or wrong. On the other hand
Deffenses for Democracy Is liberty a bad thing? Socrates seemed to think so. In Book VIII of Plato’s Republic, Socrates criticizes democracy by attacking three of its most important aspects: liberty, equality, and majority rule. He asserts that because of these things, a democratic city will always fall into tyranny. I disagree, and feel that all three of the principles are essential to a fair and just city, and only in their absence can a city be taken into tyranny. Socrates begins his observat
Descartes, Leibniz, And Spinoza Erik Irre Modern Philosophy December 16, 1999 Paper 1, Section 2 If these great thinkers (Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) were to discuss instead the soul’s connection to the body, what might each say (both on his own behalf and in response to the other)? Would they find any places where they might agree? If not, why not? (These are, after all, smart guys!) Though this sort of meeting would strike me as a debate with as furiously disparate and uncompromising idea
Did You Just See That? Humdrum Conundrum: Does or does it not make sense to insist that how each person sees things depends entirely on that persons unique time, place, and subjective judgement? on their cultural background? I would like to point out that this paper is written assuming there is an absolute reality...and there is actually a table sitting there, and it is not just a figment of our imagination, as it were. Pardon the assumption, I have to have somewhere to work from. “Did You Just
Divisibility Argument DIVISIBILITY ARGUMENT This paper will discuss the dualism’s Divisibility Argument. This argument relies on Leibniz’s Law and uses a different property to prove the distinctness of brain states of mental states. Mary, who is a materialist, presents several objections to that argument. Her main objection corresponds to the first/third-person approach. She believes that Dave presents that argument only from the first-person approach, which is introspection, and totally disrega
Do Computers Think? Can or will computers ever think? Well this has been a subject of much debate between even the greatest minds, and yet there is still no answer. First of all I have would like you to answer a question. What is 4x13? Did you have to think to answer that? Yes? Well does that mean that a computer can think because it can answer that question. Well that is what we are going to set to answer and I think yes, depending on your definition of thinking. First off let’s get something s
Emerson\'s Philosofy Ralph Waldo Emerson, nineteenth century poet and writer, expresses a philosophy of life, based on our inner self and the presence of the soul. Emerson regarded and learned from the great minds of the past, he says repeatedly that each person should live according to his own thinking. I will try to explain Emerson’s philosophy, according to what I think he is the central theme in all his works. “Do not seek answers outside yourself” This is the main idea of Waldo’s philosophy
ethics Every profession has a code of ethics. The reason for these may vary, but why do we have them? Are they that useful and important? In this paper I will examine codes of ethics from a philosophical point of view. I will focus mainly at the ASM/IEEE code of ethics, but also at code of ethics in general. I will examine what the main purpose of any code is. What the ACM/IEEE code of ethics purpose is, and does the code work in today’s professional society. I will conclude by expressing my vie