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Therapeutic Touch : Its Effectiveness On Surgical Incision Site Pain INTRODUCTION Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease patients anxiety levels and increase their pain tolerance levels when other more mainstream therapies have not been completely effective. Therapeutic touch is a process by which energy is transmitted from one person to another for the purpose of potentiating the healing process of one who is ill or injured. (Heidt, 1981; Krieger, 1979; Lionberger, 1985; Randolph, 1984;
The Roy Adaptation Model Roy began work on her theory in the 1960s. She drew from existing work of a physiological psychologist, and behavioral, systems and role theorists. She was keenly interested in the psycho/social aspects of the person from the start and concentrated her education on this aspect of Person. Thus, the language/thinking of psychology and sociology became second nature to her. The need for intense study of the language and ideas behind Roy\'s Adaptation Model is its biggest dr
The Safety of Blood A five-year old girl is riding down the street, on her way to her best friend\'s house. She doesn\'t have a care in the world and is quietly humming to herself. Suddenly a car whips around the corner and swerves to avoid the child, but he looses control and squarely hits the girl, causing the her to fall and get trapped between the car and her battered bicycle. A main artery in her leg has been severed and blood fills the gutter of the street. As she gets rushed to the hospit
Plagues and Diseases Plague. A word that has struck fear in the hearts of man since the earliest of times. It has also lead to some of the greatest historical events and stories of our time. The ancient cities of Rome and Athens, in their downfall, were finished off by pestilence. The Bubonic Plague, also known as The Black Death, devastated Europe in the 14th century, starting a new age. The great warrior Ivan the Terrible was stricken with disease, and driven mad. During the exploration of t
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a germ (bacterium) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This germ primarily affects the lungs and may infect anyone at any age. In the United States, the number of TB cases steadily decreased until 1986 when an increase was noted; TB has continued to rise since. Today, ten million individuals are infected in the U.S., as evidenced by positive skin tests, with approximately 26,000 new cases of active disease each year. The increase i
Tuberculosis TB is a disease that can cause a serious illness and can damage a person\'s organs. Every year more than 25,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with TB disease. That\'s only a fraction of the amount of people who carry the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a rod-shaped bacterium. TB is spread through the air by carriers of the germ. People who breathe the same air can become infected with the TB germ. People who do work around or with people with the TB dise
Values MATT HEALTH OCT. 21, 1996 Three important values that I hold, are hard work, family, and friendship. These are values that I think will make life better and easier for a person. They make me feel secure and prepared for the future. Without these things I probably wouldn\'t care about anything at all. My values were all influenced by my parents. The only one that I had to figure out mostly by myself, was to work as hard as I could. Hard work is something that I had to do in order to prove
Vitamins In the early 20th century the discovery of vitamins began. Today there is a chance that there are some vitamins that are still undiscovered. The definition of vitamin is: one of several substances necessary for animal nutrition, and occurring in minute quantities in natural foods; numerous types have been distinguished, and designated by the letters of the alphabet. Each and every living animal needs vitamins to grow and be healthy. Since the human body can t produce vitamins naturally
Why Sex Education Should Be Taught In Schools Most America teenagers are sexually active and think nothing could ever happen to them. But, many of them are misinformed about the risks that are involved in sex. Teens also don\'t always know the best ways to protect themselves and their partners from becoming pregnant or getting STD\'s. Alan Harris said, the more educated someone is the more likely they are to make responsible and informed choice for their behaviors. Sex education given by teacher
Work Stress 1.0 Introduction Throughout the eighties and into the nineties, work stress have continued to rise dramatically in organizations across North America. The eighties saw employees stressing out from working in a rapidly growing economy. During the nineties, beginning from the recession of 1992 till present day, employees are stressed by their own job insecurities in the face of massive downsizing and restructuring of organizations in order to be competitive on the global stage. Work st
Acid Rain THOUGHTS ON ACID RAIN Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United
Attention Deficit Disorder Chris Brown English 102: section 6 May 3, 1996 Approximately 3-5% of all American children have an Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a leading cause of school failure and under-achievement. ADD characteristics often arise in early childhood. As many as 50% of children with ADD are never diagnosed. Boys significantly outnumber girls, though girls are more likely to be undiagnosed with ADD. ADD is not an attention disorder, but a disorder of impulse control ( Sem
AIDS: Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome I am doing a report on AIDS, I don\'t know much about AIDS but I will tell you what I know. I know that it is transmitted by sexual contact,blood,needles,children during/before birth. I also know it affects the immune system directly, It is caused by the virus HIV which they have no cure for either AIDS or HIV at the current moment, but they are doing serious research on them. I call it the Generation X Disease because it mostly affects my sex- oriented
AIDS and HIV Introduction Being one of the most fatal viruses in the nation, AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is now a serious public health concern in most major U.S. cities and in countries worldwide. Since 1986 there have been impressive advances in understanding of the AIDS virus, its mechanisms, and its routes of transmission. Even though researchers have put in countless hours, and millions of dollars it has not led to a drug that can cure infection with the virus or to a vaccine
Air Pollution CFish Mr. Nollen Biology 2B 8 May, 1996 The Problem Contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. A byproduct of the radioactive decay of uranium minerals in certain kinds of
A Massive Project for the Benefit of Mankind: A Look at the Human Genome Project Scientists are taking medical technology to new heights as they race to map all of the genes, nearly 100,000, in the 23 chromosomes of the human body. Along the way, they hope to understand the basis of, and maybe even develop methods of treating certain genetic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Muscular Dystrophy. They plan to do this by identifying the DNA sequence of an abnormal gene in which a disease originates
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids are synthetic coumpounds formulated to be like the male sex hormone testosterone. Many athletes use anabolic steroids male and female alike, such as body builders , weightlifters, baseball players, football players, swimmers, and runners. They do so because they mistakenly believe that they will gain strength and size. In a male testosterone is released by the leydig cells in the testes. The testosterone has two main functions androgenic and anabolic. Androgen
An Argument For Animal Research English 103 Paper #1 Animal Rights Medicine has come a very long way since the days when men used to puncture holes into the skull to release tension or evil spirits. In the last one hundred years, for the sake of humanity, numerous vaccinations have been developed, disease and disorders of all types have been prevented, surgical techniques have been advanced, drugs have been developed to cure ailments and the list continues endlessly. The progress that has been a
Animal Rights Ever since The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in England in 1824 was formed there has been long running debates on the topic of animal rights. The first societies were formed to protect and maintain human treatment of work animals, such as cattle, horses and house hold pets. Towards the end of the 19th century more organizations were formed, this time to protest the use of animals in scientific experimentation. In today’s society groups such as People for the Ethi
Animals In The Research Lab The use of living animals is an important way to solve a medical problem. Researchers continually seek other models to understand the human organism, study disease processes, and test new therapies. In seeking quicker and not so expensive ways to look for biological information that can be applied to human disease, scientists sometimes study simpler things such as bacteria, fruit flies and a few other things. Researchers have spent many years learning how to sustain c
Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria For about 50 years, antibiotics have been the answer to many bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemical substances that are secreted by living things. Doctors prescribed these medicines to cure many diseases. During World War II, it treated one of the biggest killers during wartime - infected wounds. It was the beginning of the antibiotic era. But just when antibiotics were being mass produced, bacteria started to evolve and became resistant to these medicin
Blaise Pascal Blaise Pascal was born at Clermont, Auvergne, France on June 19, 1628. He was the son of Étienne Pascal, his father, and Antoinette Bégone, his mother who died when Blaise was only four years old. After her death, his only family was his father and his two sisters, Gilberte, and Jacqueline, both of whom played key roles in Pascal\'s life. When Blaise was seven he moved from Clermont with his father and sisters to Paris. It was at this time that his father began to school his son. T
Georg Cantor I. Georg Cantor Georg Cantor founded set theory and introduced the concept of infinite numbers with his discovery of cardinal numbers. He also advanced the study of trigonometric series and was the first to prove the nondenumerability of the real numbers. Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on March 3, 1845. His family stayed in Russia for eleven years until the father\'s sickly health forced them to move to the more acceptable environment of Fr
Carl Friedrich Gauss Gauss, Carl Friedrich (1777-1855). The German scientist and mathematician Gauss is frequently he was called the founder of modern mathematics. His work is astronomy and physics is nearly as significant as that in mathematics. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777 in Brunswick (now it is Western Germany). Many biographists think that he got his good health from his father. Gauss said about himself that, he could count before he can talk. When Gauss was 7 years old he went to schoo
Birth Defects No one is immune to birth defects, yet not everyone is equally susceptible. Birth defects are not merely a medical problem. They have profound effects on the social and psychological well being of their family and friends. In the normal course of fetal development, cells migrate to their appropriate destination so that organs and limbs form where they should. Usually, the genes perform flawlessly, but mistakes can and do occur. Some of the most common birth defects results from the
Can Genetics Cause Crime? Introduction to Criminal Justice System Dr. Mike Carlie Are genetic factors more likely to make one person perform violent acts? Many doctors and researchers in the field of genetics have searched for a answer to this question. During 1989-93 one such researcher named Dr. Sullivan found some interesting points about genetics and crime. Sullivan while working for the Bush administration’s secretary of health and human services during 1989-1993 was appalled by the epidemi
Cloning Today A clone is a group of organisms that are genetically identical. Most clones result from asexual reproduction, a process in which a new organism develops from only one parent. The one process of cloning, called nuclear transfer, replaces the nucleus of an immature egg with a nucleus from another cell. Most of the work with clones is done from cultures. An embryo has about thirty or forty usable cells but a culture features an almost endless supply. When the nucleus has been inserted
Diabetes Diabetes is a disease in which your body is unable to properly use and store glucose. Glucose backs up in the bloodstream causing your blood glucose or sugar to rise too high. There are two major types of diabetes, Type I and Type II. In Type I diabetes, your body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that lets your body use glucose found in foods for energy. People with Type I diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive. This form of diabetes usually develops i
Differences and Effects of Natural and Synthetic Fertilizers At the core of the growth and germination of plants lie the nutrients they receive from the soil. The nutrients required for growth are classified into two groupings, macronutirents and micronutrients. Macronutrients are those that are needed in very large amounts, and whose absence can do a great harm to the development of the plant life. These nutrients include calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and are very sparse in most
Discovering Sicke Cell Anemia The topic that I am learning about is Sickle Cell Anemia, a hereditary disease which affects red blood cells. Throughout this research paper, I will discuss what exactly it is, how it is caused, any known treatments or cures, and many other facts that are important in this disease. Sickle Cell Anemia is a health problem throughout the world. More than 250,000 babies are born worldwide with this inherited blood cell disorder (http://www.medaccess.com/h_child/sickle/s
Diseases: Sex Linked and Sex Influenced by Richard Nixon Honors Biology Mrs. Linda December 19, 1994 There are thousands of cases of sex linked and sex influenced diseases worldwide. These diseases can range from a social inconvenience, to a fatal ailment. In sex linked diseases, like Muscular Dystrophy, hemophilia and color blindness, only males are affected. When a man infected with a sex linked disease has children, all his sons are normal, but all of his daughters are carriers. When a carrie
DNA After staying on the plant Earth reaching the human genetic technology, I have come up with this report the four things I am going to talk about in this report are: 1) What is the chemical basis of the plant Earth 2) What do human mean by genetic technology and how is it possible 3) How have human used this technology 4) Are humans concerned about this technology 1)The chemical basis of the plant earth is deoxyribonucleic acid (generally shortened to DNA), it has the shape of a long twiste
Salt Pollution As awareness for pollution increases, other forms of pollution are defined. Almost everyone knows about toxic waste and carbon dioxide pollution, but not many people have heard of salt pollution. Salt pollution has been on the increase since the evolution of the automobile. With more pressure on government agencies to keep the highway clear and safe, an increase in the use of salt has developed. It is important to understand why salt is used and how it work as well as the environm
Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates Article Summery Name: Immunity and the Invertebrates Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it\'s membrane, tiny ce
Aspirin Andrew Donehoo January 15, 1997 Aspirin is a white crystalline substance made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It is used in the treatment of rheumatic fever, headaches, neuralgia, colds, and arthritis; reduce temperature and pain. The formula for aspirin is CH3CO2C6H4CO2H. Aspirin\'s scientific name is actylsalicylic acid (ASA). The main ingredient in ASA is salicylic acid. This ingredient grows in small roots, leaves, flowers and fruits on plants. About 100 years ago, a German chemist,
Autism: False Words and False Hope Steven Hajducko Prof. Sims MWF 10:00-11:00 29 November 1995 Autism is a childhood disease where the child is in a private world of their own. A description of an autistic child by her mother is: We start with an image---a tiny, golden child on hands and knees, circling round and round a spot on the floor in mysterious self- absorbed delight. She does not look up, though she is smiling and laughing; she does not call our attention to the mysterious object of her
Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy-This is energy that binds together components of an atomic nucleus. This is made by the process of nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is produced when an atomic atom is split. The way nuclear pore is made is in a nuclear reactor, this is most likely located in a nuclear power plant. the fission that is produced is when a heavy element splits in half or is halved into two smaller nuclei, the power of the fission is located by the rate of the splitting of the nuclei at
Stress and How To Manage It Everyone has stress, and we all have different stressors. Each person has their own way of coping with stress. some ignore their problems while others face them head on. There are four types of stressors and we all experience them at some point in our lives. One of these stressors is hassles. Hassles are a part of everyday life, but if they aren\'t coped with, they an cause major problems. One hassle in my life is me being constantly sick all of the time. Lately, I ha
The Physics Of Scuba Diving: Swimming with the Fish Have you ever wondered what it would be like to swim with the fish and explore the underwater jungle that covers two-thirds of the earth\'s surface? I have always been interested in water activities; swimming, diving and skiing, and I felt that scuba was for me. My first dive took place while on a family vacation. I came across a dive shop offering introductory dives, which immediately caught my interest. After much convincing (my parents), wit
Genetic Engineering, History and Future: Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply a
Virtual Reality Today Virtual reality allows people to study artificial worlds through simulation and computer graphics. Computers have changed the way we perform flight training, scientific research and conduct business. Flight simulators have drastically reduced the time and money required to learn to fly large jets. One of the most interesting capabilities of virtual reality is the ability to practice certain medical practices. Computers are helping many doctors perform complicated operations
The Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. The DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information gathered by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the twenty-first century and will be of g
Insects Insects are neumerout invertebrate animals that belong in the Phylum Arthropoda and Class Insecta. The class Insecta is divided into 2 subclasses: Apterygota, or wingless insects, and Pterygota, or winged insects. Subclass Pterygota is futher divided on basis of metamorphosis. Insects that have undergone incomplete metamorphosis are the Exopterygota. Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis are the Endopterygota. Insects have an outer bilateral exoskeleton to which the muscles are att
Cryogenics: Is It Worth Waiting For Imagine being frozen in time to escape a deadly illness, then getting warmed when a cure is found. There is question on whether cryogenic methods should be used. To fully understand cryogenics a knowledge of cold, background information on some branches of cryogenics, some problems with cryopresevation, and different peoples views towards cryogenics is needed. Cold is usually considered hostile to mankind. Most people hate cold and with reasons. If not caref
Leukemia Leukemia strikes all ages and both sexes. In 1995 approximately 20,400 people died from Leukemia. The all time five year survival rate is 38%. This rate has gone to 52% in the mid 1980’s. Approximately 25,700 cases were reported in 1995 alone(American Cancer Society-leukemia, 1995). Leukemia is a form of cancer in the blood cells. Most forms of Leukemia occur in the white blood cells. These abnormal cells reproduce in large quantities and look and perform differently than normal cells(M
Mad Cow Disease Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), better know as Mad cow disease is a relatively new disease. Most sources state that BSE first showed up in Great Britain in 1986 [Dealler p.5] but some say it popped up in 1985 [Greger p.1]. However the official notification was not until 21 June, 1988 [Dealler stats. p.1]. Spongiform encephalopathies are invariable fatal neurodegenerative diseases and there is no treatment nor is there a cure for this disease [Greger p.1]. The recent scare
Malaria Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, and fossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malaria’s vector has existed for just as long. The parasites causing malaria are highly specific, with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year, 300,000,000 people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent of these people die, there are still an estimated 1,500,000 deaths per year. While Malaria was one of the first i
Male Circumcision: A Social and Medical Misconception University of Johns Hopkins Introduction Male circumcision is defined as a surgical procedure in which the prepuce of the penis is separated from the glands and excised. (Mosby, 1986) Dating as far back as 2800 BC, circumcision has been performed as a part of religious ceremony, as a puberty or premarital rite, as a disciplinary measure, as a reprieve against the toxic effects of vaginal blood, and as a mark of slavery. (Milos & Macris, 1992)
How Moods Are Affected By The Sun Jared Sousa 1/20/96 Descriptive Research Thesis: The amount of sun people receive affects their mood. A young woman lies asleep on a cold, overcast winter morning. At 4 A.M., a faint incandescence radiates from a light bulb placed near her bed. The light gradually gains intensity and covers until 6 A.M., when the woman awakes. She had just experienced a simulated dawn of a new day. After being treated with this for several days, the woman\'s annual winter depres
Morality and the Human Genome Project Does the Human Genome Project affect the moral standards of society? Can the information produced by it become a beneficial asset or a moral evil? For example, in a genetic race or class distinction the use of the X chromosome markers can be used for the identification of a persons ethnicity or class (Murphy,34). A seemingly harmless collection of information from the advancement of the Human Genome Project. But, lets assume this information is used to explo