Environmental Science

The Genetics of Violence Introduction We, in the 1990’s, are slowly and inevitably being faced with the sociological and biological implications of impending genetic power. This power is analytical, in such cases as the Human Genome Project, which will hopefully succeed in mapping out the genetic code for the entire human genetic composition. Moreover, this power is preventative and participatory in that it can be, and is being, used to control the behavior of humans and other animals. This new
Introduction To Evolution What is Evolution? Evolution is the process by which all living things have developed from primitive organisms through changes occurring over billions of years, a process that includes all animals and plants. Exactly how evolution occurs is still a matter of debate, but there are many different theories and that it occurs is a scientific fact. Biologists agree that all living things come through a long history of changes shaped by physical and chemical processes that ar
DNA: The Thread of Life The "thread of life", is deoxyribonucleic acid, otherwise known as DNA. It is the spiral shaped molecule found in the nucleus of cells. Scientists have known since 1952 that DNA is the basic substance of heredity. This was hypothesized, and later confirmed by James D. Watson and Francis Crick. They also know that it acts like a biological computer program over 3 billion bits long that "spells" out instructions for making the basic building blocks of life. DNA carries the
Twinning in Cattle Mac Winslow Dr. Farin ANS 220 3 December 1996 Due to the continual fluctuation of the cattle market cattle producers have been searching for ways to improve their production and increase their profits any way possible. For years genetic engineers have been working hard on improving economic efficiency in cattle. It is their hope that through genetic research they can improve the yield and the income of cattle producers around the world. Research has shown that twinning is one
Human Variations in High Altitude Populations Jessyca Caumo 26 november 1996 Thesis:The purpose of this paper is to describe the high altitude stresses and the general adaptations made by the Tibetan population in the Himalayas and the Quechua in the Andes. I Introduction II Background A Quechua People B Tibetan People III General Adaptations A Physical 1 Growth 2 Development 3 Core temperature 4 Extremity temperature B Non- Physical 1 Clothing 2 Houses 3 Schedule V Conclusion “Some ten to twent
Hypotheses of the Effects of Wolf Predation John Feldersnatch December 1st, 1995 Abstract: This paper discusses four hypotheses to explain the effects of wolf predation on prey populations of large ungulates. The four proposed hypotheses examined are the predation limiting hypothesis, the predation regulating hypothesis, the predator pit hypothesis, and the stable limit cycle hypothesis. There is much research literature that discusses how these hypotheses can be used to interpret various data s
Acid Rain THOUGHTS ON ACID RAIN Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern United
Chloroflourocarbons Chloroflourocarbons were discovered in the 1920\'s by Thomas Midgley, an organic chemist at General Motors Corporation. He was looking for inert, non- toxic, non-flammable compounds with low boiling points that could be used as refrigerants. He found what he was looking for in the form of two compounds: dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichloromonoflouromethane (CFC-11). In both compounds, different amounts of chlorine and fluorine are combined with methane, which is a c
The Chlorine Debate: How White Do You Want It? Chlorine is one of the world\'s most widely used chemicals, the building element vital to almost every United States industry. We use chlorine and chlorine-based products whenever we drink a glass of water, buy food wrapped in plastic, purchase produce in the supermarket, pour bleach into a washing machine, have a prescription filled, print out a computer document like this one, or even drive a car. (Abelson 94) Chlorine, a member of the halogen (sa
Flouridation In 1931 at the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station M. C. Smith, E. M. Lantz, and H. V. Smith discovered that when given drinking water supplied with fluorine, rats would develop tooth defects. Further testing by H. T. Dean and E. Elove of the United States Public Health Service confirmed this report, and stated that what is known as mottled tooth. Mottled tooth is a condition in which white spots develop on the back teeth. Gradually the white spots get darker and d
Geothermal Energy Matt Arnold 9/17/96 Physics 009 Professor Arns The human population is currently using up its fossil fuel supplies at staggering rates. Before long we will be forced to turn somewhere else for energy. There are many possibilities such as hydroelectric energy, nuclear energy, wind energy, solar energy and geothermal energy to name a few. Each one of these choices has its pros and cons. Hydroelectric power tends to upset the ecosystems in rivers and lakes. It affects the fish and
Oxygen Oxygen and its compounds play a key role in many of the important processes of life and industry. Oxygen in the biosphere is essential in the processes of respiration and metabolism, the means by which animals derive the energy needed to sustain life. Furthermore, oxygen is the most abundant element at the surface of the Earth. In combined form it is found in ores, earths, rocks, and gemstones, as well as in all living organisms. Oxygen is a gaseous chemical element in Group VA of the per
The Ozone Layer In environmental science the green house effect is a common term for the role water vapor; carbon dioxide and ozone play in keeping the earth’s surface warmer than it would normally be. The atmosphere is primarily transparent to infrared radiation from the sun, which is mostly absorbed by the earth’s surface. The earth being much cooler than the sun, remits radiation most strongly at infrared wavelengths. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone then absorb much of this radiation an
Photochemical Smog Gifted Chemistry IB Alternative Assessment 1997 March 19 Historically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog. The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last three centuries. Before 1950, the majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the smoke and sulfur dioxi
Alkanes The alkanes are the simplest form of organic compounds. They are made up of only Carbon atoms and Hydrogen atoms. All of the bonds are single and the number of hydrogen atoms versus carbon atoms follows this formula: CnH2n+2 Alkanes are all non-polar molecules so they aren\'t soluble in water. Here are some more facts. -Referred to as "Saturated" -They have -low densities -low melting points -low boiling points -Refer to "Slide 29" sheet We couldn\'t find any information on who discovere
Greenhouse Effect When one starts a car or burns wood, the last thought on their mind is the consequences to these actions. Unfortunately, the daily dangers to earth are not widely know. Due to the constant change of society, this planet must cope with various problems. One of the most important ecological structures is the ozone layer. The same shield that protects us from the sun’s deadly radiation, can also act as a blanket engulfing us in heat. This situation is know as the greenhouse effect
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin was a British scientist who laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his views on life development through natural selection. He was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, on February 12, 1809. After graduating from the elite school at Shrewsbury in 1825, Darwin attended the University of Edinburgh where he studied medicine. In 1827 he dropped out and entered the University of Cambridge in preparation for becoming a clergyman of the Church of
acid rain Kyle Vesely 2/22/01 GLG 100 Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and the North Eastern
Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects Acid rain is a serious problem with disastrous effects. Each day this serious problem increases, many people believe that this issue is too small to deal with right now this issue should be met head on and solved before it is too late. In the following paragraphs I will be discussing the impact has on the wildlife and how our atmosphere is being destroyed by acid rain. CAUSES Acid rain is a cancer eating into the face of Eastern Canada and t
Acid rain is pollution Acid rain is a common term for pollution caused when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with atmospheric moisture to produce a rain, snow, or hail of sulfuric and nitric acids. Such pollution may also be suspended in a fog, or the pollutants may be deposited in dry form. Environmental damage from acid rain has been reported in northern Europe and North America. High levels of acid rain have also been detected in other areas of the world, such as above the tropical rain f
Air Pollution Problem The first thing people see, in the morning, when they walk outside is the sky or the colored sun. Is this world giving us the privilege of seeing the natural colors of the sun through all the layers of pollution within the air (Dinanike 31)? Not only are beautiful sights such as this hidden behind the pollution this world causes everyday, but an increase in diseases, infections and death occurs. What causes pollution? What can we do to prevent it,and get rid of it? Is it fa
Alzheimers Disease ALZHEIMER’S 1 Alzheimer’s Disease Katrina Lindsey Florida Atlantic University Advanced CPR John Picarello March 18, 2000 ALZHEIMER’S 2 Alzheimer’s disease is a complex illness that affects the brain tissue directly and undergoes gradual memory and behavioral changes which makes it difficult to diagnose. It is known to be the most common form of dementia and is irreversible. Over four million older Americans have Alzheimer’s, and that number is expected to triple in the next tw
An End To Genetic Diseases The United States has a very diverse heritage. There is no American race. Americans are the blending of many cultures throughout many generations. With this blending of cultures comes a blending of genes. In the past, genes have not been well understood. They were not understood until Mendel did experiments on plants to find out why different plants of the same species had different characteristics. His goal was to find the key to unlock the mystery of inheritance (Cop
Anorexia By: Anonymous It seems today that eating disorders are on the rise. While this may be true, the numbers may appear to grow only because more cases are being brought out into the open. The purpose of this paper is to discuss eating disorders and prove the these disease, specifically Anorexia Nervosa, continue to plague of women due to psychological and environmental factors along with pressure from the media. The term “Anorexia Nervosa” is misleading. It means “loss of appetite due to ne
Another Tumours A tumour is a mass of new tissue growth that does not react to normal controls or the organizing influence of other tissues, and it has no useful function in the body. This applies to both types of tumours, malignant and benign. Malignant, also known as, cancerous tumours, are additionally defined by their invasion of local tissue and their ability to spread to other parts of the body. Benign Tumours A benign tumour which is not cancerous, is less serious than malignant tumours b
Biotechnology Biotechnology: Its application in agriculture Introduction: Persuade public to become aware of the changes Persuade audience to think about where they stand on this very important issue and take action according to your decision. Labeling and careful regulation of genetically manufactured foods v Persuade the American Public to think about the following changes that are being made in Agriculture as a society wish should discuss the issue. v Control genetic technology, Persuade publ
Birth Defects Birth defects, or congenital malformations, are the faulty formation of structures or body parts present at birth. Sporadic, hereditary, or acquired defects may be immediately observed or may become manifest later in life; they may be visible on the body surface or present internally. Birth defects may be life threatening and require surgical correction, or they may interfere with function or appearance. It is estimated that about 3% of all children are born with major defects; min
Black Holes If theories of their existence are true, black holes are the most powerful force in the known physical universe. Many people are familiar with the term black hole, but few people actually know anything about them. A black hole forms as a result of a massive star running out of fuel to burn (Chaisson, 193). Once the star is no longer exerting outward force by burning off gases, it begins to collapse under it’s own intense, inward gravity (Chaisson, 193). It is like slowly letting the
Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that occurs in small quantities in the earth\'s atmosphere naturally. The earth\'s ocean, soil, plants and animals release CO2. The formula of Carbon Dioxide is CO2. The CO2 molecule contains 2 oxygen atoms that each share 2 electrons with a carbon atom to form 2 carbon - oxygen double bonds. The atoms are arranged as so (OHT). This is called a \'linear molecule\'. Carbon dioxide is commonly found as a gas and is never a liquid. It subli
Climate Change and World Food Supply The world needs to think of how the climate is changing the food supply of the earth. The climate is doing some really bad things to the earth. The atmosphere is also not in good shape because of climate change. Humans now need to think of how climate change is affecting people. Climate change is affecting the food supply of the world. The climate change is rapidly affecting the earth. The Greenhouse gases are what is really messing up are world food supply a
Colorado River Geographers can tell you that the one thing that most rivers and their adjacent flood plains in the world have in common is that they have rich histories associated with human settlement and development. This especially true in arid regions which are very dependent upon water. Two excellent examples are the Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates rivers which show use the relationship between rivers and concentrations of people. However, the Colorado River is not such a good example along m
Dams Many people have already dammed a small stream using sticks and mud by the time they become adults. Humans have used dams since early civilization, because four-thousand years ago they became aware that floods and droughts affected their well-being and so they began to build dams to protect themselves from these effects.1 The basic principles of dams still apply today as they did before; a dam must prevent water from being passed. Since then, people have been continuing to build and perfect
Depletion Of The Ozone Layer The ozone layer diminishes more each year. As the area of polar ozone depletion (commonly called the ozone hole) gets larger, additional ultraviolet rays are allowed to pass through. These rays cause cancer, cataracts, and lowered immunity to diseases.1 What causes the depletion of the ozone layer? In 1970, Crutzen first showed that nitrogen oxides produced by decaying nitrous oxide from soil-borne microbes react catalytically with ozone hastening its depletion. His
Diabetes Mellitus DIABETES MELLITUS In the United States, about 16 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus, although only half of these individuals are diagnosed. Every year, about 650,000 people learn they have the disease. Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of all deaths and the sixth leading cause of all deaths caused by disease. Diabetes is the most common in adults over 45 years of age; in people who are overweight or physically inactive; in individuals who have an immediat
Dioxin Pollution Dioxin is one of the most toxic chemicals known. A report released for public comment in September 1994 by the US Environmental Protection Agency clearly describes dioxin as a serious public health threat. The public health impact of dioxin may rival the impact that DDT had on public health in the 1960\'s. According to the EPA report, not only does there appear to be no safe level of exposure to dioxin, but levels of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals have been found in the genera
Ecology In the original Greek oikos means, house . So ecology is the study of the house the place where you live, or the environment which technically includes all those factors, both nonliving and living, that affect an organism. Ecology then is the study of the interactions of organisms in their environment includes both the living (biotic) and physical (abiotic) factors of the environment. It\'s also the science, which formulates and tests hypotheses about environment. Ecology is the relation
Enviormental Affects Of Global Warming Environmental effects of global warming The greenhouse effect and global warming are issues that are talked about by geologists all the time. The greenhouse effect is a natural process that keeps the earth at temperatures that are livable. Energy from the sun warms the earth when its heat rays are absorbed by greenhouse gasses and become trapped in the atmosphere. Some of the most common greenhouse gasses are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. If the
Enviormentalism Evironmentalism: The Next Step Broad Social Change Through Personal Commitment Introduction In the last thirty years, America has witnessed an environmental revolution. New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. Social phenomena like Earth Day, organized by Dennis Hayes in 1970, and the beginning of large-scale recycling, marked by Oregon\'s 1972 Bottle Bill, have help change the way Americans think a
Environmental Air Pollution My views of the environment are rooted in my belief in creation. I do not believe that life on earth began spontaneously, nor do I believe that the earth is so delicately balanced. I don’t believe that the earth and its ecosystem are fragile. Many radical environmentalists do, they believe man can come along, all by themselves and change everything for worse. After hundreds of millions of years, they believe that we are the last two generations of human existence. And
Ethics In Physical Therapy Ethics in Physical Therapy One of the most rapidly growing occupations in the United States today is Physical Therapy. The United States Department of Labor has projected 23,000 unfilled physical therapist positions in the year 2000 and a lack of qualified physical therapists to fill them (www.apta.org). While Physical Therapy grows rapidly, questions of ethics in this field have also grown in large quantities. Physical therapy is the treatment of disease through physi
External Temps. On Crayfish And Mice Animal metabolism consists of the utilization of nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract and their catabolism as fuel for energy or their conversion into substances of the body. Metabolism is a continuous process because the molecules and even most cells of the body have brief lifetimes and are constantly replaced, while tissue as a whole maintains its characteristic structure. This constant rebuilding process without a net change in the amount of a cell
Genetic Modified Food Genetic modification of organisms in general is a biotechnological process that forces genes to behave according to certain characteristics. Changing characteristics of organisms is based on changing their DNA (tech deoxyribonucleic acid; the acid which carries genetic information in a cell). It is being used for modifying genes in plants, animals or micro-organisms. It is being also used especially with food in order to improve the nutritious quality, make less use of chem
Hhv-8 “Human Herpes Virus-8 (HHV-8) and Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS)” Human herpes virus (HHV-8) poses a challenging task for researchers determining its role in Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS). People with KS are distinguished by their placement in four categories. The first category consists of elderly males of Mediterranean or Eastern European Jewish descent. The second category consists of individuals of all ages from Africa. Neither one of these categories is associated with immune deficiency or known envir
Human Cloning Imagine it is the year 2008. As you pick up your daily issue of the New York Times, you begin to read some of the interesting articles on the front page. The top story of the paper reads, Germany Wins All Gold Medals at the Olympic Games: Is Cloning in Competitive Events Fair? Other interesting articles reported on the front page include: Rock Star Stacy Levesque and Lover’s Nuclear Transplanted Child is Born and Former President George Bush’s Cloned Heart Transplant A Success. The
Human Evolution Evolution is the complexity of processes by which living organisms established on earth and have been expanded and modified through theorized changes in form and function. Human evolution is the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens sapiens, or human beings. Humans evolved from apes because of their similarities. This can be shown in the evidence that humans had a decrease in the size of the face and teeth that evolved. Early humans are classified in ten
Human Genome GENOME PROJECT Adam and Eve were doomed for trying to be like god, this is the same damnation mankind is headed to. Everyone’s dream is to have absolute power and control of everything. The genome project and DNA engineering gives man the ability to create life and cu omize life to his specific needs of likes. So how good is too good? Man’s ability to make life or create perfect human beings so they can be in a state of Utopia will disturb the balance of nature. Every individual, ev
Hydroelectric Energy Hydroelectric energy potentially is the result of a fortunate coincidence in which nature and the need to modernize, are combined together in an on- going cycle. The cycle being evaporated, precipitation and concentration. Having water, though, does not necessarily mean having hydroelectric potential. To be in usable form, that water must be in continuous supply, accessible and concentrated in rivers with a volume flows and a descent rate, sufficient to drive generating turb
Issues Of Human Cloning The Issue of Human Cloning The recent news of the successful cloning of an adult sheep-in which the sheep\'s DNA was inserted into an unfertilized sheep egg to produce a lamb with identical DNA-has generated an outpouring of ethical concerns. These concerns are not about Dolly, the now famous sheep, nor even about the considerable impact cloning may have on the animal breeding industry, but rather about the possibility of cloning humans. For the most part, however, the et
It\'s Tough Being A Turtle It’s Tough Being a Turtle Everyday, I go about my daily activities of slowly waking up, taking a walk with my family to the Mississippi River, bathing daily, and many other activities. Sometimes I just enjoy sitting on the shore with the water splashing up on me every once in a while. Occasionally, when we’re hungry my friends and I hunt for mussels or clams along the river bank. We basically go about doing our own thing. Sporadically something exciting happens, like w
Landcare Revegetation Rehabilitation is the process of reclaiming land for economical or conservation purposes. This process usually involves re-vegetation. The main aim in rehabilitation is to either return the land to a self-sustaining ecosystem or prepare the land for human use, i.e. crops, pastures and plantations. Rehabilitation should take place at a rate that is significantly higher than natural succession. Several principles are implemented for successful rehabilitation. Of these princip