Digestive System

Alcoholism
Alcoholism
Alcoholism Alcoholism, chronic and usually progressive illness involving the excessive inappropriate ingestion of ethyl alcohol, whether in the form of familiar alcoholic beverages or as a constituent of other substances. Alcoholism is thought to arise from a combination of a wide range of physiological, psychological, social, and genetic factors. It is characterized by an emotional and often physical dependence on alcohol, and it frequently leads to brain damage or early death. Some 10 percent
Alcohol consumption
Alcohol consumption
Alcohol consumption Alcohol, probably the oldest drug known, has been used at least since the earliest societies for which records exist. Of the numerous types of alcohol, ethyl alcohol is the type consumed in drinking. In its pure form it is a clear substance with little odor. People drink alcohol in three main kinds of beverages: BEERS, which are made from grain through brewing and fermentation and contain from 3% to 8% alcohol; WINES, which are fermented from fruits such as grapes and contain
Drugs
Drugs
Drugs TOBACCO Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. It is considered an addictive substance because it contains the chemical nicotine. The tobacco plant is believed to have originated in the Western Hemisphere. The cultivated species most often grown for North American and European tobacco products is Nicotine Tabacum. The leaves of the plant are prepared for smoking, chewing, or sniffing. In addition nicotine tobacco contains over
Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol Abuse Alcohol Abuse Alcohol is liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as solvent, antiseptic and sedative moderate potential for abuse. Possible effects are intoxication, sensory alteration, and/or anxiety reduction. Symptoms of overdose staggering, odour of alcohol on breath, loss of coordination, slurred speech, dilated pupils, fetal alcohol syndrome (in babies), and/or nerve and liver damage. Withdrawal Syndrome is first sweating, tremors, then altere
Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol Abuse Alcohol Abuse Alcohol is liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as solvent, antiseptic and sedative moderate potential for abuse. Possible effects are intoxication, sensory alteration, and/or anxiety reduction. Symptoms of overdose staggering, odor of alcohol on breath, loss of coordination, slurred speech, dilated pupils, fetal alcohol syndrome (in babies), and/or nerve and liver damage. Withdrawal Syndrome is first sweating, tremors, then altered
Alcohol
Alcohol
Alcohol Alcohol is a widely used substance for both science and in technology. Its name comes from an Arabic word al-kuhl meaning a powder for painting the eyes. The term was later applied to all compounds that contain alcoholic spirits. To most people alcohol is considerd a downer that reduces activity in the nervous system. Some of the things alcohol effects you is, the alcohol intoxicated person exhibits lose muscle tone, loss of fine moter coordination,and often has a staggering drunken
Cocaine
Cocaine
Cocaine The potent drug cocaine was first prescribed as an anesthetic and a painkiller by doctors who believed that it was a safe substitute for morphine. The drug is a white, crystalline compound that has been processed from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum coca), a tropical shrub commonly found wild in Peru and Bolivia and cultivated in many other countries. For centuries South American Indians have chewed the coca leaves for pleasure and to help them withstand strenuous working cond
Entrepreneur Observation Report
Entrepreneur Observation Report
Entrepreneur Observation Report This report outlines a very small business of my brother’s. It describes his business, target market, financial plans, and marketing plans. I have tried to keep a neutral opinion about his opinions as much as possible. I have tried to keep my inputs and thoughts in the conclusion only. The whole idea of my brother, insert name here, owning a business started in early March of 1998 when one of the neighbors jokingly suggested he should raise chickens and sell them
Jonas Salk
Jonas Salk
Jonas Salk From the beginning of mankind, man has looked for cures of illness. Jonas Salk found a cure for one of the worst illnesses in the history of man, polio. Jonas Salk\'s polio vaccine was a great discovery of his time, and it is still being used today to eradicate polio worldwide. Dr. Salk is also known for other medical discoveries. He was a quiet man who lived a rough childhood. He was not looking for fame, instead, it found him. During the time before the vaccine, many people, mostly
AIDS: US Made?
AIDS: US Made?
AIDS: US Made? In an article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of Top Secret, Prof. J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal illustrate their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Top Secret is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). Top Secret carries the Naming Names column, which CAIB is prevented from doing by the American
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster?
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster?
AIDS: A U.S.- Made Monster? PREFACE In an extensive article in the Summer-Autumn 1990 issue of Top Secret, Prof J. Segal and Dr. L. Segal outline their theory that AIDS is a man-made disease, originating at Pentagon bacteriological warfare labs at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Top Secret is the international edition of the German magazine Geheim and is considered by many to be a sister publication to the American Covert Action Information Bulletin (CAIB). In fact, Top Secret carries the Naming Nam
Inflammatory Bowel Disease/ Crohn's Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease/ Crohn's Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease/ Crohn\'s Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders that cause inflammation or ulceration in the small and large intestines. Most often IBD is classified as ulcerative colitis or Crohn\'s disease but may be referred to as colitis, enteritis, ileitis, and proctitis. Ulcerative colitis causes ulceration and inflammation of the inner lining of a couple of really bad places, while Crohn\'s disease is an inflammation that extends into the deep
Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive trait on chromosome 7. This disorder affects chloride transport resulting in abnormal mucus production. This lifelong illness usually gets more severe with age and can affect both males and females. Symptoms and severity differ from person to person. Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal inherited disease among whites and the major cause of chronic lung disease in children. 50% of people are expected to live to be 30, but a majority di
Heartburn and Gallstones
Heartburn and Gallstones
Heartburn and Gallstones Heartburn is the inflammation of the esophagus. It is also known as pyrosis. The major cause of heartburn is reflux. This is when the esophagus bottom edges are not tightly shut, and acid moves form the stomach up into the esophagus. Hiatus Hernia\'s also cause heartburn. This also occurs when the ends of the esophagus are not shut, and the stomach lining moves up the esophagus. There are many other causes of heartburn, some of which being: obesity, drinking hot or cold
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by
Work Stress
Work Stress
Work Stress 1.0 Introduction Throughout the eighties and into the nineties, work stress have continued to rise dramatically in organizations across North America. The eighties saw employees stressing out from working in a rapidly growing economy. During the nineties, beginning from the recession of 1992 till present day, employees are stressed by their own job insecurities in the face of massive downsizing and restructuring of organizations in order to be competitive on the global stage. Work st
AIDS and Its Causes
AIDS and Its Causes
AIDS and Its Causes 1.INTRODUCTION In June 1981, the centers for The Disease Control of the United States reported that five young homosexual men in the Los Angels area had contracted Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia( a kind of pneumonia that is particularly found in AIDS patient). 2 of the patients had died. This report signalled the begninning of an epidemic of a viral disease characterized by immunosuppression associated with opportunistic infection( an infection caused by a microrganism that d
Birds
Birds
Birds Birds are some of the most amazing animals on earth. Most have the ability to fly. Some use ground travel. Some use claws, others use only their beaks. Birds come in many varieties of colors and sizes. Birds are warm-blooded, egg-laying creatures from the aves class. Along with the obvious feathers and wings, birds have other adaptations for flying such as a wide keel on the sternum, with large wing muscles attached, air spaces and sacs throughout the body and bones, to decrease their weig
Carnivorous Plants
Carnivorous Plants
Carnivorous Plants In a world where plants are at the bottom of the food-chain, some individual plant species have evolved ways to reverse the order we expect to find in nature. These insectivorous plants, as they are sometimes called, are the predators , rather than the passive prey. Adaptions such as odiferous lures and trapping mechanisms have made it possible for these photosynthesizers to capture, chemically break-down and digest insect prey (and in some cases even small animals.) There is
Damn Near Everything There Is To Know About Cells
Damn Near Everything There Is To Know About Cells
:Damn Near Everything There Is To Know About Cells: Biology Cell Report There are many parts of a cell, they all have specific duties, and are all needed to continue the life of the cell. Some cells exist as single-celled organisms that perform all of the organism\'s metabolism within a single cell. Such single-celled organisms are called unicellular. Other organisms are made up of many cells, with their cells specialized to perform distinct metabolic functions. One cell within an organism may be
Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology
Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology
Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease i
Development of the Human Zygote
Development of the Human Zygote
Development of the Human Zygote November 16, 1995 Hundreds of thousands of times a year a single-celled zygote, smaller than a grain of sand, transforms into an amazingly complex network of cells, a newborn infant. Through cellular differentiation and growth, this process is completed with precision time and time again, but very rarely a mistake in the blueprint of growth and development does occur. Following is a description of how the pathways of this intricate web are followed and the mista
Frogs
Frogs
Frogs Frog is the common name for a species of amphibian that also includes toads. A very common question is “whats the difference between frogs and toads?” , the answer: none, except for the fact that toads lack the powerful legs that frogs have. “Where can frogs and toads be found?”, one might ask. They live in all parts of the world, except for Antarctica, but are mostly found in tropical areas. Frogs are small animals with smooth moist skin, and big eyes that can see in almost any direction.
How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out.
How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out.
How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out. By Faisal Premji Science 10 Assignment -- Part B In a human being, nutrients are necessary for survival. But how are these nutrients obtained? This report will go into depth on how the food we eat gets into our cells, and how the waste products that we produce get out of the body. Also, the unicellular organism Paramecium will be compared with a human being, in terms of all of the above factors. Dietary Nutrients The chief nutrients in a diet are classified
Insects
Insects
Insects Insects are neumerout invertebrate animals that belong in the Phylum Arthropoda and Class Insecta. The class Insecta is divided into 2 subclasses: Apterygota, or wingless insects, and Pterygota, or winged insects. Subclass Pterygota is futher divided on basis of metamorphosis. Insects that have undergone incomplete metamorphosis are the Exopterygota. Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis are the Endopterygota. Insects have an outer bilateral exoskeleton to which the muscles are att
The Praying Mantis
The Praying Mantis
The Praying Mantis (Mantis Religiosa) Contents Introduction Classes First Things First Key Features Basic Features Diet & Combat Style Reproduction Growth & Development Self-Defense Cultural Significance Praying Mantis Kung-Fu INTRODUCTION Praying Mantis is the name commonly used in English speaking countries to refer to a large, much elongated, slow-moving insect with fore legs fitted for seizing and holding insect prey. The name, Praying Mantis more properly refers to the specific Mantid s
UFOs
UFOs
UFOs Little Green Men, Martians, Outer Limits ! That is what people think about when aliens and UFOs come to mind. Aliens have been around, as far as we can see, since 1561. The question is now asked, How come because they [UFOs] have been sighted, encountered, and taken hostage; Why have we been kept in the dark by our governments? Since UFOs were considered a security risk, the report on these sightings was originally classified as secret (Kadrey 22). The name \'flying saucer\' was \'c
Tapeworm Infestation
Tapeworm Infestation
Tapeworm Infestation Charlotte Cox Causative agent: Tapeworms are parasitic Helmiths of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) and Class Cestodes. They include Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) and Diphyllobothrium latum and Echinococcus granulosus . Anatomy: Scolex (head) with suckers, sometimes hooks. Proglottids -body segments continuously produced by the scolex which contain both testes and ovaries that mature as they move away from scolex to produce eggs. Taenia
The Dog
The Dog
The Dog Domestic dog, carnivorous mammal, generally considered the first domesticated animal. The domesticated dog has coexisted with human beings as a working partner and household pet in all eras and cultures since the days of the cave dwellers. It is generally believed that the direct ancestor of the domestic dog is the wolf, originally found throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. Remains of a dog, estimated to be 10,500 years old, have been found in Idaho. TAXONOMY Kingdom: Animalia Phy
The Effects of Altitude On Human Physiology
The Effects of Altitude On Human Physiology
The Effects of Altitude On Human Physiology Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the body\'s ability to provide adequate oxygen to be utili
Cancer: The Costs, Causes, and Cures
Cancer: The Costs, Causes, and Cures
Cancer: The Costs, Causes, and Cures Cancer is a major killer of people all around the globe. We do not have a definite cure, but the amount of research done on this one disease costs on the average of $1.2 billion dollars annually, and $20 billion annually in care of cancer patients. What is Cancer? Cancer is a broad ranging term that is used by many people, including medical professionals such as doctors. Cancer, in its most fatal and aggressive form, is of a larger class of diseases known as
An End To Genetic Diseases
An End To Genetic Diseases
An End To Genetic Diseases The United States has a very diverse heritage. There is no American race. Americans are the blending of many cultures throughout many generations. With this blending of cultures comes a blending of genes. In the past, genes have not been well understood. They were not understood until Mendel did experiments on plants to find out why different plants of the same species had different characteristics. His goal was to find the key to unlock the mystery of inheritance (Cop
Biology Instinct
Biology Instinct
Biology Instinct Insects are neumerout invertebrate animals that belong in the Phylum Arthropoda and Class Insecta. The class Insecta is divided into 2 subclasses: Apterygota, or wingless insects, and Pterygota, or winged insects. Subclass Pterygota is futher divided on basis of metamorphosis. Insects that have undergone incomplete metamorphosis are the Exopterygota. Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis are the Endopterygota. Insects have an outer bilateral exoskeleton to which the muscle
Cats As Carnivorous Predators
Cats As Carnivorous Predators
Cats As Carnivorous Predators Cats as Carnivorous Predators Throughout the course of evolution the cat’s ability to survive in the wild has become extremely dependent upon its hunting ability. In order for feral, or undomesticated, cats to survive on their own in the wild they have developed hereditary traits and instincts from their ancestors throughout time. Though these hereditary traits that they have inherited are helpful for undomesticated cats, they can often cause problems when domestica
Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disease of white Indo-Europeans (Caucasians). Three main systems are usually affected by cystic fibrosis. These include the lungs and respiratory tract, the digestive tract (especially the pancreas and intestines) and the sweat glands. The lungs will normally have a thick mucus line them in cases of cystic fibrosis which requires physiotherapy to dislodge the mucus and create sputum. The digestive enzymes that would c
Effects Of Altitude On Human Physiology
Effects Of Altitude On Human Physiology
Effects Of Altitude On Human Physiology The Effects Of Altitude On Human Physiology Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the body\'s abilit
Genetic Modified Food
Genetic Modified Food
Genetic Modified Food Genetic modification of organisms in general is a biotechnological process that forces genes to behave according to certain characteristics. Changing characteristics of organisms is based on changing their DNA (tech deoxyribonucleic acid; the acid which carries genetic information in a cell). It is being used for modifying genes in plants, animals or micro-organisms. It is being also used especially with food in order to improve the nutritious quality, make less use of chem
Gut Issues
Gut Issues
Gut Issues We share many experiences with the kings of old: pastries, for instance, and home entertainment and vacation trips to far-off lands. Ancient-day common folk knew nothing of such things. Then again, they weren\'t constipated... We are. Not all of us, of course. But enough Canadians so that some doctors call our a constipated society. And even if you\'re not constipated, your present day diet may be leading you to more serious complaints like disorders of the large intestine or colon. T
Irratable Bowl Syndrome
Irratable Bowl Syndrome
Irratable Bowl Syndrome Bo Moore E-Block Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (usually referred to as IBS) is a disorder of the large intestine that lasts for a long period of time. People who have IBS experience symptoms like constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms can occur one after another. A person can experience constipation at some times and diarrhea at other times. Occurrences of lower bowel irritation may also be accompanied by mild pain, swelling of the stomach and a lot
Life
Life
Life Until recently, scientists believed that the sole source of energy responsible for life on earth was the sun. In 1977, a group of scientists researching the theory of plate tectonics, traveled to the floor of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and discovered something that could possibly explain how life began on this planet. From the Galapagos Rift\'s thermal springs, scientists discovered densely populated communities of several species never before observed. Since that time the Federal Governm
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
The Cystic Fibrosis Gene Introduction: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so man
THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the body\'s ability to provide adequate oxygen to be utili
The Liver
The Liver
:The Liver: Facts, Functions, and Structure of Justin Amos Anatomy/ Physiology October 24, 1997 Facts and Functions The liver is the largest organ in the entire, normal human body. It weighs anywhere from 2.5 to 3.3 pounds. With its large size it is also a very resilient organ. Up to 3/4 of its cells can be removed before is ceases to function. It is red-brown organ roughly shaped like a cone. The liver is located in the upper right abdominal cavity immediately beneath the diaphragm. Without the
Transgenic Rice Plants
Transgenic Rice Plants
Transgenic Rice Plants For centuries, rice has been one of the most important staple crops for the world and it now currently feeds more than two billion people, mostly living in developing countries. Rice is the major food source of Japan and China and it enjoys a long history of use in both cultures. In 1994, worldwide rice production peaked at 530 million metric tons. Yet, more than 200 million tons of rice are lost each year to biotic stresses such as disease and insect infestation. This ext
Vegetarianism - To Meat Or Not To Meat
Vegetarianism - To Meat Or Not To Meat
Vegetarianism - To Meat Or Not To Meat As children, one of the first things we learn is to recognize the friendly barnyard animals. We easily can spot the furry cow with the gentle eyes, the feathery chickens who run wildly about, and the pink pigs that roll in the mud. We may also sing about that nice farmer, Old McDonald, and all of his nice animals. The truth is that Old McDonald with a straw hat has been replaced by a business man in the hard hat. Ninety-five percent of the meat we eat does
The Mind-Body Connection
The Mind-Body Connection
The Mind-Body Connection The mind has an incredible power. We see it as we go through our everyday activities, constantly displaying the wonders of logic, thought, memory and creativity. Yet, can the mind be more powerful than we know? Is it possible to reduce or even eliminate pain, illness and disease by using the natural powers it possesses? Can the mind heal? Many of our finest researchers and scientists have explored that question, and while the exact answer still eludes us, the facts seem
Homosexuality
Homosexuality
Homosexuality Homosexuality has been on debate for numerous years. It is mentioned in the Bible which is thousands of years old. But recently two philosophers have spoken how they feel about Homosexuality. Michael Levin and Richard Mohr\'s views on the subject are in conflict with one another. Levin argues that homosexuality is abnormal because it is a misuse of body parts that have evolved for use in heterosexual intercourse (Levin 354). Furthermore, because natural selection has made the exerc
Biology
Biology
Biology 1. The virus is made up of five parts and is in the size range of 10 nm-300 nm in diameter. The first is the coat made up of protein that protects the virus to a point. Next is the head that contains the genetic material for the virus. The genetic material for a virus is DNA. The two other parts are the tail sheath and the tail fibers that are used for odd jobs. I believe that a virus is not considered to be a living creature due to the fact it is a parasitic reproducer. To me it is just
Ritalin and Its Uses
Ritalin and Its Uses
Ritalin and Its Uses In recent years, more and more kids seem to be on a prescription drug called Ritalin(methylphenidate). This drug is being handed out more and more by doctors as a way of treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a complex neurological impairnment that prevents kids from concentrating. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency, it rose fron 200 grams per 100,000 people to over 1400 grams per 100,000 people in the last fifteen years. The National Institute of Mental He