Young Offenders Act In Canada

The subject of young offenders in our troubled society has been one
that has generated many hours of thought and meditation for
concerned members. It is felt by many that the change needed in the
area of delinquency within the First Nations culture is to overcome the
effects of colonization and this must begin with the youth. It is with the
youth that the future of the culture lies.
There has been extensive research done in this area and
although much of the material is not directed at one specific culture in
society, the facts remain that it is a problem that is growing in
epidemic proportions. Many of the programs that exist in society today
do not address the problems associated with young offenders of
specific cultures. Although the trend is moving in a direction that
addresses programs for specific cultural groups much more emphasis
must be put on these programs.
For First Nations youth that are locked into the juvenile system,
there must be alternative treatment programs made available that
deal with the problems associated with the colonization process that
generations of First Nations people have been subjected to. The
process of decolonization will only be achieved through education,
understanding, and perseverance, and this can only be achieved by
First Nations people working with First Nations people.
As indicated earlier much research has been done on the
problems associated with young offenders and the current treatment
programs. In the following research some of the most recent and
important pieces have been used and to eliminate repetition much has
been deemed unnecessary.


Cooke, David J., Baldwin, Pamela J., Howison, Jacqueline. (1990).
Psychology in Prisons. London: Routledge.

In the second chapter of this book the authors explain in detail
the psychology of criminal behavior and how it develops at a young
age. Early environment of the adolescent, along with socio-economic
status of the young offenders are but a few of the possibilities
explored in this book. The authors explore the many influences that
can shape the lives of young people, the influences of feelings and
thoughts, others behavior, and surroundings, are all thought to shape
the minds of the young offender. This publication will be primarily
used to explore the history and causes of the subject of young

Davidson II, William S., Rednor, Robin,. (1990). Alternative Treatments
for Troubled Youth: The Case of Diversion From The Justice
System. New York: Plenum Press.

This publication presents the findings of a research study done
on alternative interventions with delinquent youth. The authors goal in
writing this book was to describe an alternative intervention model
and to examine its workability in the existing system. The authors in
their research show that the intervention programs in the past have
been ones of failure. It is believed that the success of intervention
programs must be researched in such a way that all variables are
considered before a program is to be implemented. One of the major
problems discovered in their findings is the lack of professionalism in
the implementation of these intervention programs, hence many of the
programs operating today are destined for failure.

Griffiths, Curt T., Verdun-Jones, Simon N. (1994). Canadian Criminal
Justice. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.

This publication is a prime source of material as it covers a
multitude of areas pertaining to young offenders. This book addresses
some of the cultural issues such as policing and community aspects of
the troubled youth. The author takes a close look into sensitizing the
criminal system and addresses the problems of cultural awareness for
the justice personnel. There is an excellent chapter in the book that
looks at programs for youth in different parts of the country and
explores the possibilities of alternative programs targeted for
marginal peoples.

Ottawa, Canada. (1993). Dept. of Justice. Toward Safer Communities:
Violent and Repeat Offending by Young People.

This journal was presented in an attempt to help the
government re-establish their stand that they are addressing the
problems of young offenders in the community. This publication was
primarily focused toward strengthening the governments stand that
they are moving in a forward direction. The material in the journal
primarily points in the direction that the age for young offenders
should be lowered for some offences and that stiffer penalties should
be invoked for many repeat offenders. It was clear that this would be
an excellent piece of material to use as a basis for the argument that
the government is not moving in a positive direction to address the
problems of repeat young offenders.

Ottawa, Canada. (1986). Canadian Association for Children and
Adults with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities and the Young
Offenders: Arrest to Disposition.

This publication investigates how the