This essay William Shakespeare has a total of 456 words and 4 pages.
Born on April 23, 1564 in Stratford-Upon-Avon, England. His father John
Shakespeare and his mother Mary Arden. W.S. was able to attend grammer school
and learned Greek and Latin classics (this is comparable to college education
today). At age 14 his father lost the family fortune and remained poor until
At 18 he married Anne Hathaway in 1582. She was 26 years old. They had three
children Suzanne(1583) and the twins Hamnet and Judith(1585).
In his mid-twenties he left Stratford(supposedly because of poaching on the
Queen\'s land) for London. His first job with Richard Burbage\'s men was as an
osler; next an actor.
No one knows what he was doing during 1585-1592.
By 1592 he had become known in London as an actor and playwright; his rise was
Queen Elizabeth 1 supported the arts and the theater.
In 1592 a plague closed the theaters(Shakespeare wrote poetry during this time
to support himself). In 1593 a brief reopening of the theater happened. In 1594
The troupe became the Lord Chamberlain\'s Men set up on a servant co-op structure.
Requirements for actors:
1. loud voice 2. sing and play instruments 3. good swordsman 4. good memories
During this time he wrote many comedies: Comedy of Errors first of any status.
Histories were written in support of the gov\'t. This is where they were
receiving much of the financial support so they wanted to keep the gov\'t (Queen)
happy. W.S. was a major stockholder in the theater.
1597-bought New Place in Stratford(2nd largest house)
1599-Lord Chamberlain\'s Men bought land and built the Globe Theater in
Southwark(South Bank of the Thames River). W.S. owned 1/10th
1603-Queen Elizabeth died. King James took reign of England. He loved the
arts more than the queen. The name was changed from Lord Chamberlain\'s Men to
the King\'s Men.
1608-Added to the Globe Theater by buying the Black Friars Theater and giving
performances there also. W.S. owned 1/7th
1613-Fire at the Globe during a performance of Henry 8th; rebuilt within a year.
Left comedies and histories to write tragedies soon after the Globe reopened.
Sonnets-published in 1610 but circulated earlier.
First Tragedy: The Tragedy of Hamlet
Late plays: Cymbeleneand and Winter\'s Tale became bitter, ironic, and sad (much
as his mood was changing toward the latter parts of his life.)
The Tempest: last play written as a posible farewell to the theater
He wrote 37 plays throughout his life.
1612-retired as a country gentlemen to New Place in Stratford
1616-wrote his will(by himself)
1616-April 23,1616 - died on the day and the month he was born
1623 - first folio was done by two of the men who admired him from his company
at the Globe.
Topics Related to William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Kings Men, Richard Burbage, Lord Chamberlains Men, Hamnet Shakespeare, Stratford-upon-Avon, Shakespeares life
Essays Related to William Shakespeare
MacBethMacBeth Macbeth by WilliamShakespeare has three characters that appear to be the best developed. The first is Macbeth, the main character of the story. The second most developed character is Lady Macbeth, Macbeth’s wife. The third most well developed is Banquo, Macbeth’s friend. Banquo and Lady Macbeth play very important roles in Macbeth’s life. Macbeth is plagued with paranoia and a thirst for power. Macbeth fears that Banquo has discovered his unclean hands and he will turn him in. “Our fear
Macbeth Senior Research PaperMacbeth Senior Research Paper In Shakespeare’s lifetime he wrote many plays. Many of them were critically acclaimed and others cast aside. The crowd always wanted to be more thoroughly entertained and Shakespeare always tried to keep up with the people’s needs. In 1605, Shakespeare was being hounded for another work of genius. Hamlet and King Lear had just been completed and the people begged for more. He knew not of what to write and like many playwrights, he did research. He found two stories
Macbeth--a Tragic HeroMacbeth--a Tragic Hero MacBeth In the play Macbeth by WilliamShakespeare, the character of Macbeth is discovered to be a classic example of a tragic hero. Macbeth is a very ambitious and courageous person who lets three main things turn him into a violent individual. Two of the points, which most greatly contribute to Macbeth’s fall, are the prophecy, which were told to him by the witches, and how Lady Macbeth influenced and manipulated Macbeth\'s judgment. These two factors along with his trem
MacBeth's decent into hellMacBeth\'s decent into hell Macbeth Essay Nov.5/95 Macbeth is a play by WilliamShakespeare. Macbeth is a man who commits a series of crimes because of persuation from his wife that will benefit mostly himself but also Lady Macbeth. The play watches Macbeth as he decents into hell it also shows the conscious mind of a murderer and how murder affects peoples minds. At the beginning of the play Macbeth is a well respected warrior by everybody. Macbeth is the thane of Glamis at the beginning of the
Macbeth-Tragic HeroMacbeth-Tragic Hero Macbeth-Tragic Hero As I finished reading Macbeth by WilliamShakespeare I realized the true reason that Macbeth is considered a tragic hero. Like all other tragic hero’s he had many good things going for him in his life before he messes with self- destructing things and threw it all away. Macbeth had a great marriage, he was Thane of Glamis, the people and the king respected him and he was well liked. He was a generally happy person without much greed or jealousy in his life
Merchant Of Venice EssayMerchant Of Venice Essay Many people are villainous in the way they act, and their villainous acts may be rooted in the desire to destroy others, or in the hopes of elevating themselves. Many people may only act villainous in reaction to the way they have been treated in the past. Shylock the Jew is the villain or antagonist in the play The Merchant of Venice. Shylock mistreats Antonio the Christian, his daughter, Jessica and Launcelot. The first person Shylock mistreats, is Launcelot. He mist
Ontrast Between Language Of Love In The BalconyOntrast Between Language Of Love In The Balcony In WilliamShakespeare\'s _Romeo and Juliet_, Shakespeare introduces many themes that he continues throughout all of his tragedies, including the language of love vs. the language of death. The balcony scene is the most valuable scene illustrating the language of love, whereas in the final scene of the play the language of death is used to set the stage for their suicides, pulling together the tragic ending of the play. Throughout the second scene
OthelloOthello The play Othello by WilliamShakespeare is based on an Italian story in Giraldi Cinthio\'s Hecatommithi (Grolier). In Othello we encounter Iago, one of Shakespeare’s most evil characters. Iago is an officer in Othello\'s army and is jealous of Cassio\'s promotion to Lieutenant. Through deception and appearance, we see unfolded many lies and clever schemes. The astonishing thing about Iago is that he seems to make up his malicious schemes as he goes along without any forethought. Noted wr
Othello's Impact On Today's SocietyOthello\'s Impact On Today\'s Society Othello\'s Impact on Today\'s Society In the late 1990\'s playwright, WilliamShakespeare\'s, Othello was successfully produced in the United States and around the world. One might wonder why this classical tragedy gained so much popularity with today\'s society. In my own opinion, this play was successful due to the themes and issues addressed. Societies still deal with these situations today. These themes and issues are a part of our lives and people can r
Passage from HamletPassage from Hamlet Formal Critical Analysis of a Passage from Hamlet - Hamlet’s speech (III, iv, 139-180) Sung-Wook Han AP English 4 / Mr. Epes Hamlet Paper Formal Critical Analysis of a Passage from Hamlet Hamlet is probably the best known and most popular play of WilliamShakespeare, and it is natural for any person to question what makes Hamlet a great tragedy and why it receives such praises. The answer is in fact simple; it effectively arouses pity and fear in the audiences’ mind. The audi
Realities In MacbethRealities In Macbeth WilliamShakespeare wrote the play Macbeth in 1606. The play tells the story of a man who is so ambitious that he commits treason and murder. His actions are predicted by three “weird sisters”, and he is also encouraged by his wife, Lady Macbeth, to perform the evil acts that will result in his ultimate demise. Throughout the play the perception of Macbeth’s character and morality are quite different than the reality that the reader is ultimately confronted with. Macbeth is
Reasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius's SuicideReasons For The Anticipation Of Claudius\'s Suicide Nicholas Bermudez Mr. Thompson 4 European Literature 2 Honors March 18, 2000 Reasons for the Anticipation of Claudius\'s Suicide In the tragic play Hamlet, by WilliamShakespeare, a particular deterrent in Hamlet\'s quest to be rid of his regal uncle is his procrastination. This act of murder intended to set the future right is Hamlet\'s sole responsibility, ordered by his deceased father. Hamlet\'s main target throughout the play is for Claudi
Revenge In HamletRevenge In Hamlet The Presence of Revenge in Hamlet Revenge is a major theme in the Tragedy of Hamlet. In the play Hamlet, by WilliamShakespeare, the theme of revenge is repeated numerous times throughout the play and involves a great deal of characters. Of these characters, eight are dead by the end of the play by result of murder which was initiated through revenge. Shakespeare uses the revenge theme to create conflict among many characters. Revenge causes one to act blindly through anger, ra
Romatic EraRomatic Era 19th Century Romanticism in Europe- Books related to 19th Century Romanticism in Europe- 19th Century Romanticism in Europe- Romanticism began in the early 19th century and radically changed the way people perceived themselves and the state of nature around them. Unlike Classicism, which stood for order and established the foundation for architecture, literature, painting and music, Romanticism allowed people to get away from the constricted, rational views of life and concentrate on
Romeo And JulietRomeo And Juliet SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN THE WORK PLACE Sexual harassment has been a prevalent occurrence in workplace across the country. Sexual aberration can lead to damage to personal reputation, loss of dignity, or even physical injury. Although it is illegal, it continues to happen in this politically correct era. Sexual harassment has many definitions and therefore some people find it difficult to define. Many case studies have been done on the subject of sexual harassment in the workplace i
Romeo's Tragic FlawRomeo\'s Tragic Flaw The essence of being human is that one does not seek perfection, states the British author, George Orwell. Every individual grows to understand that perfection is unachievable, therefore, human beings embody dramatic flaws. Many people tend to be unkempt or have poor manners, while others have behavioral difficulties such as quick temperament, dishonesty, or intentional rudeness. These perplexities can bring about hardships throughout an individual\'s life. William Shakespea
Schlisinger's canon vs my high school's canonschlisinger\'s canon vs my high school\'s canon Schlesinger’s Canon Vs. My High School’s Canon In school, whether it be at the high school or college levels, there are usually lists of books thought as being essential reading. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.--a Pulitzer Prize winning historian--calls this list in his book The Disuniting of America, a canon or canonical literature. A problem exists with this canon, at least Schlesinger claims there is. He states that the canon is being used as
Sea DogsSea Dogs The Sea Dogs... Puppets in a Political War by L. C. Adv. Eng. 3/4 11/12/96 Ms. M. Sea dogs of the 1500 and 1600’s worked for queen Elizabeth, robbing and pillaging the Spaniards. Over this period of 200 years many shipments of gold and treasure were stolen from Spanish ships while they were sailing from port to port on the Spanish main. In one attack the infamous Francis Drake, “...surprised and attacked a heavily laden string of 200 mules. The booty that Drake captured in this attack i
Sealed FateSealed Fate In the play Macbeth, written by WilliamShakespeare, each characters destiny seems to be predetermined. This raises the ultimate question: who, or what, controls fate? Existentialism is the belief that each person defines their future by their decided actions: that the future has not yet been written. Fatalism is the belief that the outcome of all events is preordained, and therefore, unalterable. Throughout Macbeth, the character Macbeth makes many decisions which clearly affect his
ShakespeareShakespeareShakespeare\'s Portrayal of Jews In Shakespeare\'s play, The Merchant of Venice, there are, as is typical of Shakespeare, several different themes. One that emerges at the beginning and is present throughout the rest of the play is anti-semitism. Many of the people of Shakespeare\'s time shared the belief that Jewish people were inferior to Christians, a belief reaching far back to ancient times. To these prejudiced people, the Jewish character of Shylock appears to posses the typica
Shakespeare’s Sonnet #73Shakespeare’s Sonnet #73 Shakespeare\'s Sonnet #73, published in 1609, is written in the Shakespearean or English sonnet style. It consists of three quatrains and one couplet at the end, written in iambic pentameters. Each quatrain has its own rhyme scheme, rhyming in alternating lines. The couplet summarizes the preceding twelve lines. Sonnet 73 appears to contain multiple parallels to death and the person speaking in the poem gives the impression that he is near death and reflecting back upon
Shakespeare's LifeShakespeare\'s Life WilliamShakespeare was born on April 23, 1564. He was baptized on April 24, 1564, in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. He was the third of eight children born to John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. John was a well-known merchant and Mary was the daughter of a Roman Catholic member of the gentry. Shakespeare was educated at the local grammar school. According to history, Shakespeare was the eldest son, and he should have been the apprentice to his father\'s shop so that he coul
Shakespeare's Sonnet 53Shakespeare\'s Sonnet 53 Shakespeare\'s Sonnet 53 Whether we realize it or not, we often give overlook the faults in the people who are dear to us. We focus on their good qualities and ignore the bad. This practice is not unique to our culture nor is it unique to our era. Shakespeare in his sonnet numbered 53, compares all beauty to his friend, and criticizes for trying to be as good as his friend. He does this by seemingly comparing his friend to things of beauty when in reality he is suggestin
Sinful ActsSinful Acts Sinful Acts In Fire from Heaven, Much Ado About Nothing, and The Flea, the authors take a stance on men and women committing sinful acts and using it as a main position in their work. They write from a very religious perspective which is probably due to the time period in which their work was written about. They develop this idea in very different perspectives to get their point across. They express this position vividly throughout their work. David Underdown didn\'t live in this tim
Sonnet 29Sonnet 29 Sonnet #29 Despite popular belief, WilliamShakespeare was considered a great poet before a great playwright. He accomplished writing at least 154 sonnets and other poems of love. In this paper, I will analyze one of his greatest sonnets. One of the most famous of his sonnets is number XXIX. This sonnet is one long sentence, but it still follows the usual Shakespearean pattern of three quatrains (four line sections) and a couplet. It also follows the traditional rhyme scheme for Shakes
Symbolism In 'The Glass Menagerie'Symbolism In \'The Glass Menagerie\' Symbolism is a major aspect in Tennessee William\'s famous play, The Glass Menagerie. On the surface, the short slice of life story seems to be simple. However, if the reader digs deeper they will find that there are several symbols that give the play a deeper meaning. Each character defines each symbol in a different way. Aside from character symbols, there is overall symbolism in this play. It is set in a memory, so it creates a soft, dream-like setting. T
The Births of KingsThe Births of Kings The Birth of Kings Two plays, Hamlet, written by WilliamShakespeare and Oedipus Rex, written by Sophocles share a common bond of illusion and innocence. The protagonists in both plays appear at the beginning only to have changed so that reality has broken through the illusion with less than desirable results for either. In these two plays, two kings must leave their innocence behind as the truth leads them first, to enlightenment and then to their downfall. This is a bat
The Life of the Great William ShakespeareThe Life of the Great WilliamShakespeare Cheryl Bowman Mrs. Bembas 2nd. Period English 6 May 1996 The Life of the Great WilliamShakespeare There are many authors that are widely read. However, none are more universally read and studied than the great WilliamShakespeare of the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His plays and poems have moved millions of people, unofficially giving him the well-deserved title of the greatest of all dramatists. Shakespeare is the basis for excellence in literac
The Poet of NatureThe Poet of Nature William Wordsworth is widely considered one of the most influential English romantic poets. In the preface of his book, Lyrical Ballads, published in 1798, Wordsworth declared that poetry should contain language really used by men. This idea, and many of his others, challenged the old eighteenth-cuntury idea of formal poetry and, therefore, he changed the course of modern poetry (Wordsworth, William DISCovering). Wordsworth was born in Cockermouth, England, to John, a prominen
The Sonnet and FormThe Sonnet and Form Each format greatly affects ones poem and the chosen theme. The sonnet has clear thought divisions and the theme of love is a good choice for a short poem. Shakespeare uses good sound devices to epitomize the theme and form. This Shakespearean sonnet by WilliamShakespeare is a good example of how the sonnet form is complimentary to the theme. In this Shakespearean sonnet, the form conforms to the original format. Both the original and this poem have three quatrains and a con
The Taming Of The Shrew by William ShakespeareThe Taming Of The Shrew by WilliamShakespeare Analytic Play Review Of The Taming Of The Shrew By Nathan Davies The Taming Of The Shrew by WilliamShakespeare is probably one of Shakespeare\'s earliest comedies. Its plot is derived from the popular \'war of the sexes\' theme in which males and females are pitted against one another for dominance in marriage. The play begins with an induction in which a drunkard, Christopher Sly, is fooled into believing he is a king and has a play performed for
The Tempest-Bringing it all TogetherThe Tempest-Bringing it all Together Bringing it all together The Epilogue of the Tempest by WilliamShakespeare is an excellent -- if not the best -- example of Shakespeare\'s brilliance. In 20 lines Shakespeare is able to write an excellent ending to his play, while speaking through his characters about Shakespeare\'s own life and career. Even more amazingly, he seemlessly ties the two together. In the context of the story Prospero\'s monologue makes perfect sense. He has lost his magical powe
The Globe TheatreThe Globe Theatre Among the many famous writers we have studied this year is WilliamShakespeare. Shakespeare\'s life was assuredly most intriguing. Seeking answers, we had simple questions we wanted to determine. What were his morals? His passions? His legacy? When studying Shakespeare, we found that his life revolved around the Globe Theatre. Naturally we wanted to see why Shakespeare spent so much of his life involved in the Globe. The first Globe lasted from 1599-1613. Additionally, this str
The Merchant Of VeniceThe Merchant Of Venice When WilliamShakespeare wrote, The Merchant of Venice, he included a female character that influences the play dramatically. In most of Shakespeare\'s plays, the women have little power and intelligence. In The Merchant of Venice, however, Portia is a woman that saves the life of a man with her wit and intelligence. Another woman created by Shakespeare that posses qualities similar to Portia is Beatrice, from Much Ado about Nothing. Both women add to the main themes of th
The TempestThe Tempest Bringing it all together The Epilogue of the Tempest by WilliamShakespeare is an excellent -- if not the best -- example of Shakespeare\'s brilliance. In 20 lines Shakespeare is able to write an excellent ending to his play, while speaking through his characters about Shakespeare\'s own life and career. Even more amazingly, he seemlessly ties the two together. In the context of the story Prospero\'s monologue makes perfect sense. He has lost his magical power, so his charms are o\'e
The Use Of Animal Imagery In OthelloThe Use Of Animal Imagery In Othello In WilliamShakespeare’s play “Othello” the use of animal imagery was evident throughout the telling of the story. Shakespeare explained several characters actions by comparing them to similarities in animals. The characters in “Othello” were often depicted as having animal-like characteristics. Some characters were even compared to animals by other characters in the play. By defining characters in terms of these characteristics one can get a clear descriptio
The Uses Of Deception In Twelth NightThe Uses Of Deception In Twelth Night The Use of Deception in WilliamShakespeare\'s Twelfth Night Deception is a key theme WilliamShakespeare\'s Twelfth Night. The characters must use deception to obtain good things, escape bad situations, or to play cruel hilarious ticks on other people. One example of deception is when Viola clothes herself in men\'s clothing in order to obtain a job under the Duke of Illyria, Orsino. During another scene Sir Andrew, Fabian, Maria, and Sir Toby Belch trick M
Waiting for Godot- Lucky's speechWaiting for Godot- Lucky\'s speech One of the most unusual parts of the play is, not surprisingly, one of the most important parts. This is Lucky\'s speech, which is given near the middle of the play. It\'s importance is signalled not only by its content, but by its style and structure as well. While any other line in the play is important, if for no other reason, just for being there, Lucky\'s speech is utterly significant. In general, the other lines are short, limiting themselves to a sente
What Is Good EducationWhat Is Good Education What is a Good Education? Education literally means the things a person learns by being taught. So, the definition of a good education would be the things a person learns by being taught well. But what exactly does that mean? No one has ever told you that, right. To me a good education is basically achieved when a person has a general to specific knowledge of the things that have happened in the world, things that could happen in the future of the world, how to communicate
When a Flower BlossomsWhen a Flower Blossoms When a Flower Blossoms WilliamShakespeare addresses the question of identity in The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark through the characters of Hamlet and Ophelia. Although the play is centered on Hamlet’s struggle for identity, a more important issue is addressed through Ophelias’ struggle. She is ignored and left alone to find the truth about what it means to become a woman, while Hamlet receives constant concern while struggling with his identity issues as an adult.
William Carlos Williams- A Poet On A MissionWilliam Carlos Williams- A Poet On A Mission WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS: A POET ON A MISSION by WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS: A POET ON A MISSION Among the poets of his own illustrious generation, William Carlos Williams was the man on the margin, the incorrigible maverick, the embattled messiah. (Unger 402) Throughout his career, Williams has always been known as an experimenter, an innovator, and a revolutionary figure in American poetry. He is regarded as an important and influential poet because o
A Tale Of Two Cities LAA Tale Of Two Cities LA A Tale of Two Cities This paper is a literary analysis over the book A Tale of Two Cities, written by Charles Dickens. It contains information about the author, plot, and characters in the story. Devices and styles used to complete the book are also in this paper. On February 7, 1812 in Portsea, Charles Dickens began his life. His father, John Dickens, spent little time with Charles. The family lived in poverty and John was in prison much of the time. When Charles was two
Agatha ChristieAgatha Christie Agatha Christie Agatha Christie is the best-known mystery writer in the world. Her books have sold over a billion copies in the English language. Another billion have also been sold in forty-five foreign languages. Her works have been translated into more languages than those of WilliamShakespeare. Only the Bible and Shakespeare outsell her novels, thus making her the most successful mystery writer of all time. Agatha Miller was born in Torquay, England on September 15, 1890. As
Another MacBethAnother MacBeth In the play Macbeth by WilliamShakespeare, we discover that Macbeth is a tragic hero. Macbeth is very ambitious, courageous, and a moral coward: all these things lead to his tragic death at the end of the play. At the beginning of the play, Shakespeare defines Macbeth as a hero very clearly. From the courages in defense of Scotland is significant in the opening scene. However, he is very ambitious to be king. At the beginning of the play, he was loyal to the king. While he did i
Another Romeo and JulietAnother Romeo and Juliet The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet Author: WilliamShakespeare Genre: Play Orig. Pub. Date: 1596 . Setting: Verona, Italy. Mantua, Italy. Theme: Always tell the truth. Plot Summary: The play starts off when the Montagues and the Capulets are fighting. The Prince of Verona stops the quarrel and tells the two families that he is fed up with the feud. He says it has gone on too long and that this is the last of it. He says that the next person who fights will die. Later on tha
Charles DickensCharles Dickens INTRODUCTION This report will talk about the life of a famous author, Charles Dickens. It will tell you about his early, middle, and later years of his life. It will also talk about one of his great works of literature. In conclusion, this report will show a comparison of his work to his life. EARLY LIFE Charles Dickens was born at Landport, in Portsea, on February 7, 1812. His father was a clerk in the Navy Pay-Office, and was temporarily on duty in the neighborhood when Charles
Hamlet and King LearHamlet and King Lear There are a lot of similarities in two Shakespeare stories HAMLET and KING LEAR. I guess its because of the style in which Shakes peare wrote. WilliamShakespeare wrote three kinds of stories: comedy, tragedy and history. Both of these books are tragedies and they are very similar tragedies. In both of these stories there is a feud going on within the family. And in both the feud is between the children and their parents or relatives. Hamlet is looking for the revenge on his
HamletHamlet n the play, Hamlet by WilliamShakespeare, many aspects contribute to the tale of tragedy, but of these there is one thing that is purely essential to this famous story : the ghost of King Hamlet. The ghost of King Hamlet is so important to Hamlet on so many levels, accounting for most issues, directly or indirectly, that are involved in the drama. The intrigue of the pale specter creates many things such as Hamlet\'s procrastination, it also projects the image of Hamlet\'s madness, and m
Julius CaesarJulius Caesar In WilliamShakespeare’s play, Julius Caesar, there is a major difference between two of the characters, Brutus and Mark Antony. Brutus was very honorable and Antony was very persuasive. When Brutus spoke at Caesar’s funeral, he appealed to the people’s logic and Antony spoke to the emotions of the people. Antony is very smart and uses his brain frequently during the play and Brutus is very naive about many of things. Brutus was very honorable and Antony was very persuasive. Brutus
King LearKing Lear King Lear is a detailed description of the consequences of one man\'s decisions. This fictitious man is Lear, King of England, who\'s decisions greatly alter his life and the lives of those around him. As Lear bears the status of King he is, as one expects, a man of great power but sinfully he surrenders all of this power to his daughters as a reward for their demonstration of love towards him. This untimely abdication of his throne results in a chain reaction of events that send him t