West Begin

WEST AS A LAND OF CONQUEST. “



Citing the Sioux as the example, explain the conquest of the Natives. When did the conflicts occur and where did they occur? What were the Anglo American objectives and what were the Means? What was the outcome?

· As you stated that most all of the Plains Indians were tough’s fighters, but the tribes that became the most powerful were the Comanche’s in the South the Sioux in the North.
· 1860 Indian sovereignty had been responsible for the government’s efforts to erect t permanent barrier or buffers between the tribes and the Anglo culture. West of the bend of the northern bend Missouri River would constitute a permanent Indian country. Treaties never withstood other pressure of white interest in the lands occupied by the Indians and that pattern was true in this case as well.

· 1850 each tribe was granted a large area of land under a policy called concentration.
· 1851 each tribe revived its own defined reservation, confirmed by separate treaties duly ratified by US Senate. (Which did not survive for very long because it favored whites who wanted access to land, and it divided the Indians and kept them for negotiation in their common interest.)

· New policy. Recommended two large reservations would be established. South, Indian Territory (Oklahoma) was established and in the north, the Dakotas all the way to the Powder River in Montana was established, which failed.
· Corruption and incompetence in the Bureau of Indian Affairs was a major problem.
· 1850s until the late 1890 there was nearly incessant warfare on the plains. (A small band of Indians would attack whites that had encroached into Indian Territory). Little Crow, the Santee killed more than 700 white before they were subdue by the Army in retaliation after the US Army encroachment by the whites in 1860.
· 1864 fighting between whites and Indians broke out in eastern Colorado and led to one the most despicable event s in the annals of Anglo-Indian conflict.
· Gold was discovered in Cherry Creek in what is now Denver.
· Natives were assigned to lands in eastern Colorado between the Platte and Arkansas Rivers.
· Retaliate again in rejecting this treatment to recover their lost territory. Which lead to John Chivington attack this camp without warning when all the Indians who did not want to fight went the army camps where they would be protected. November 28,1864.
· Black Kettle managed to escape to the south. Four years later he and his people ware attacked by the US Army at the Washita Rive on the Texas-Oklahoma border.
· Ogallala Sioux led by Red Cloud from 1865-1867, Red Cloud’s warriors harassed soldier and construction crews sent to build three forts along the proposed road.
· Head of the fighting occurred in December 1866 when a wood train was assaulted near Ft. Kearney. Apt. W.J. Feterman and 100 troopers was Killed Tues. 29 of Feb. by Crazy Horse in a decoyed. Whites vigilante a groups made killing Indian a sport.
· 1867 Meducube Lodge Treaty of 1867 provided for individual reservations for the southern tribes.
· Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne agreed to reservations in the Western Indian Territory.
o Laramie Treaty of 1868 gave the Sioux and northern tribes a reservation west o the Missouri River.
o 1874 Red River War of 1874 after this treaty was rejected 3,000 troops sent to area.
o June 1875 Southern Plains with the Natives forced onto the detested reservations.
o A major fight occurred at the Big hole Rive but the Indians were able to Bitterroot Valley were able to keep going. Later they turned east into Yellowstone National park (which was established five years earlier) to try to meet up with the rows.
o Reject by the Crows, the Nez perce turned north and headed for Canada where they hoped to meet up with Sitting Bull’s Sioux.
o They never made it twenty miles south of the Canadian border. They surrendered on October 5.
o 1860’s until 1872 when great Cochise agreed a treaty.
o Geronimo became the chief two years later, he rejected the treaty.
o 1871 the Apache war had been the most violent of all Indian conflict. Both sides committed atrocities on an unprecedented scale.
o Final 19th century fight took place in South Dakota. 1880s dispirited and sometimes starving Sioux had learned of a religious movement in Nevada started by Novoka, Ute medicine man.
o Ghost Dance which visions. Fears of the white that a violence
o Sitting Bull police attempted