UNIVERSAL CAUSATION


I would prefer the view of the soft determinist, that being free is largely a question of definition. Do we truly have free will? That depends on how we define “freedom”. The very nature of language requires us to use definitions. If I were to say the word “tree”, a person understanding the English language would automatically know I was referring to a plant. Even though I do not specify what kind of tree, an image would be made. Two people could have different mental images but the understanding of the word would be the same. When someone says he has made a free-will choice, he means that his choice is determined, but refers to a process that we would want to say is a free. A choice which is free meets the following conditions: a, the agent knows that he is doing the choosing; b, he has deliberated over the options of choice; c, he was not coerced internally or externally by causes which would force him to choose one option over others; and d, he made the choice given his criteria of making a choice --his criteria led him to choose this particular option over the others.


Thus, by a "free-choice" is meant that the above processes occurred. The choice was determined by antecedent factors, the criteria used by the agent to pick the option were determined but, so what? The fact that the agent made his choice through his deliberations is precisely what is meant by "free-choice." That being the case, the agent can be open to moral critique.


Consider the following example. I decide to make a spelling mistake in this sentince. I made the mistake under the following conditions. I knew what I was doing. I was not coerced by anyone to make the error, nor was I compelled by some psychological disease to pick out "sentence" and intentionally misspell it. I typed the error having deliberated over whether to do it or not. This process is precisely what we mean when we say someone did something of his own free-will. We refer to the events involved in the decision and action, all of which were strictly determined.


I don’t think both Determinism and Libertarianism is true. After all, how can they both be true? One of them says that every event happens of necessity, and the other says that not every event happens of necessity. The fact that these theories cannot both be true at the same time is this: no matter which of these theories you ultimately decide to accept, you will find it to be accompanied by some intellectual and/or emotional discomfort or dissonance.


Law of universal causation ( U.C), the theoretical or asserted law that every event or phenomenon results from, or is the sequel of, some previous event or phenomenon, which being present, the other is certain to take place. Principle of Universal Causation (PUC): Every event is causally determined; that is, given what precedes the event and the relevant laws of nature, the event had to occur as it did. The explanation or cause need not be known, discoverable, remarkable or atypical. PUC seems necessary for making the most basic sort of sense of what happens in the world. When the washing machine throws soapy clothes all over, we\'re not happy if the repair service says they can\'t discover the cause of the malfunction; but we\'d reject as utterly preposterous a claim that the malfunction was not caused. Similarly, we may not expect to understand fully (or even partially) why one person murders another, but we\'d find unintelligible the claim that the murder occurred for absolutely no reason whatsoever and without there being any cause at all. Universal causation says that no event is avoidable. This propersation that no event is avoidable is called determinism. Determinism is a theory according to which everything that happened, happened of necessity. According to this theory anything that happened , has to happen, and anything that ultimately doesn\'t happen, couldn\'t have happened. The universe, every series of events that constitute it, is unfolding in the one, the only, way that it can unfold. There are two kinds of determinism, hard determinism and oft determinism.


Hard determinism is every event is causally determined, and moral