This essay To what extent was Alexander II a Tsar liberator? has a total of 3329 words and 16 pages.
To what extent was Alexander II a Tsar liberator?
Alexander II did introduce a number of reforms, which were quite revolutionary for that period of time. Many historians therefore believe that Alexander II deserves the title ‘Tsar Liberator’. Views of Alexander II do, however, differ to a great extent, When regarding Alexander II Saunders says “his enthusiasm for change lasted a mere four years, it may be that his reputation as the ‘Tsar liberator’ is ill deserved“ 1this strongly suggests that Alexander II was not a liberator. However, as Bideleux says “Alexander II came to be known as the ‘Tsar liberator on account of his resoluteness in freeing millions of Russian serfs through the 1861 Emancipation Act”2 although Alexander II did free serfs this does not solely justify the title ‘Tsar liberator’ Alexander may have freed the peasants but it wasn’t complete freedom. Many historians believe that Alexander II cannot be called a “Tsar Liberator” as he did not pass reforms out of a genuine desire to liberate, but to remain in power and keep the peace instead. Historians also argue that Alexander II remained a very determined autocrat who was not willing to let go of his inherited autocratic powers. There is no doubt that Alexander was not willing to let go of his autocratic powers and although he made significant reforms in areas such as education and the military he was not a liberator.
Alexander has been called a liberator due to his reforms of serfdom. It is important to realise that Serfdom was an economic institution and an instrument of social control that had been seen as the norm, therefore for Alexander II to change this system can be seen as a liberal reform. However when you look closer at the terms of the emancipation edict it looks less of liberation, this is due to the fact the peasants had to pay redemptions fees for 49 years and never gained sufficient land for their needs. Equally the reasons behind emancipation were not to liberalise the peasantry. Only through Emancipation could Russia modernise following the disastrous failure that was the Crimea war, if this was the only reason behind Alexander II’s decision and not to liberate one may have difficulty in describing Alexander II as a ‘Tsar liberator’.
One reason why Alexander II’s title as ‘Tsar liberator’ is called into question is the controversy regarding redemption payments. The major difficulty was the charging of redemption payments to compensate the nobility for loss of land and labour which was part of the emancipation edict. Redemption fees were a major financial burden on the peasants and critics use this to prove that the Emancipation was a failure. “The sovereign has betrayed the hopes of the people; the freedom he has given them is not real and is not what the people dreamed of “1 this implies that Alexander II was not a liberator because they were not fully liberated. However Bideleux disputes this and presents statistics that redemption dues came down to about 2% of agricultural output 2 Bideleux implies that the redemption fees were not as harsh thus Alexander II may be seen as a liberator. These statistics by Bideleux are somewhat selective as in the fertile black soil regions of the Ukraine no doubt these figures were feasible but this was not the case in many other areas where redemption fees were onerous. Therefore on balance redemption fees were a major factor in the Emancipation edict not being a true liberation since without the means to be financially and economically independent many peasants could not be called liberated.
When considering the extent to which Alexander II was a Liberator, historians do not question the liberation of the peasants from landowners. They question the terms of the Emancipation edict itself. Zaionchkovsky says “There can be no doubt that the reform defrauded the peasants… the most onerous conditions of all were the terms of redemption…the allotments obtained by the private peasant through the reform were for the most part entirely inadequate...” 3 Zaionchkovsky was writing this in 1978 as a soviet historian during Communist rule. He is therefore unlikely to be supportive of reform undertaken by the Tsarist regime. Bideleux contradicting this interpretation says “Overall in 43 provinces of Eastern Russia
Topics Related to To what extent was Alexander II a Tsar liberator?
Feudalism, Russia, Serfdom, Emancipation reform, Alexander II of Russia, Serfdom in Russia, Russian Empire, Emancipation, Peasant
Essays Related to To what extent was Alexander II a Tsar liberator?
Ethical Economics?Ethical Economics? Nicholas Grosz Mr. Burke Econ 3/1/00 ETHICAL ECONOMICS? The term ethical and economics should never be put into the same sentance. They are almost oxymoronic in the sense that in order for one to succeed on an economic level, ethics are usually never involved. America as we have come to know it is a world full of mice and snakes. The mice are those in society who voluntarily choose to live off of the prosperous, as the snakes go out and get their prey. The capitalistic society
Confucius PaperConfucius Paper According to tradition, Confucius was born in the state of Lu (present-day Shandong Province) of the noble K\'ung clan. His original name was K\'ung Ch\'iu. His father, commander of a district in Lu, died three years after Confucius was born, leaving the family in poverty, but Confucius nevertheless received a fine education. He was married at the age of 19 and had one son and two daughters. During the four years immediately after his marriage, poverty compelled him to become a s
The Hole In The NetThe Hole In The Net Our social safety net has a hole in it. The fibers of the net are decaying; the hole is getting bigger. More people are falling through, and the people with the least strength are holding the most of the weight. Three to four million Americans are homeless according to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 5.5% cannot find jobs according to the Bureau of Labor and Statistics, and the figure is over twice that in the 20-24 year old age group, according to the D
Freud and MarxFreud and Marx Freud and Marx it can be argued were both, as individuals, dissatisfied with their societies. Marx more plainly than Freud, but Freud can also be seen as discontent in certain aspects such as his cynical view of human nature. Each were great thinkers and philosophers, but both seemed unhappy. Perhaps the social ills and trouble each perceived in the world about them were only the reflections of what each of the thinkers held within themselves. Each person observes the same world,
Camelot: MerlinCamelot: Merlin We all at one point or another dream. Imagine you are in another place or a another time, the future maybe, even maybe the past where years, days, centuries, minutes all irrelevant if you have imagination. I now dream of a time and place were men have such things as bravery and honor. I now speak of Camolot. The legendary castle wear Merlin the priest, Merlin the magie, and Merlin the wise is supposed to have lived. I am not the only person to dream this dream, many play writers
MerlinMerlin We all at one point or another dream. Imagine you are in another place or a another time, the future maybe, even maybe the past where years, days, centuries, minutes all irrelevant if you have imagination. I now dream of a time and place were men have such things as bravery and honor. I now speak of Camolot. The legendary castle wear Merlin the priest, Merlin the magie, and Merlin the wise is supposed to have lived. I am not the only person to dream this dream, many play writers and actor
History of Turkish Occupation of Northern KurdistaHistory of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan. Eric jensen Poli. Sci. (Third World Politics) 11/27/96 Since 1984, and especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news scene. That state is the Republic of Turkey and it\'s primary troubles stem from the past seven decades of acrimonious policies directed at the indigenous ethnic Kurds. The main problem, now, is the Kurdish po
History of Turkish Occupation of Northern KurdistaHistory of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan Eric jensen Poli. Sci. (Third World Politics) 11/27/96 History of Turkish Occupation of Northern Kurdistan. Since 1984, and especially the last few months, the domestic problems of a major N.A.T.O, Middle Eastern, and American ally state have come to the forefront of the international news scene. That state is the Republic of Turkey and it\'s primary troubles stem from the past seven decades of acrimonious policies directed at the indigenous et
CharlemagneCharlemagne History 101 - Fast Forward Fall 1996 PREPARED BY: SUBMITTED: September 30, 1996 Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, King of the Franks (742-814), was a strong leader who unified Western Europe through military power and the blessing of the Church. His belief in the need for education among the Frankish people was to bring about religious, political, and educational reforms that would change the history of Europe. Charlemagne was born in 742 at Aachen, the son of Pepin(or Pippin) the S
Freud and MarxFreud and Marx Hey! I got an A- on this paper, so I guess it\'s pretty good! I put my own personal spin to it in that not only did I compare Freud and Marx\'s viewpoints, I stated that perhaps what they saw in society was just a reflection of their own biases and personal inner feelings. Freud and Marx it can be argued were both, as individuals, dissatisfied with their societies. Marx more plainly than Freud, but Freud can also be seen as discontent in certain aspects such as his cynical view of
FeudalismFeudalism Well, most people don\'t recognise this, but the chess board at your house or that you have know is call The Feudal System. The kings and the queen, the knights, castles, bishop …… they are base on this historic system. Well it was first, in the early time of our history, most of the people live their live their live by hard work on their land, and there was so much war going on that time, and that justice was unfair. Sooo, the weak would look to the strong for help, and protection a
NapoleonNapoleon Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, and was given the name Napoleone Buonaperte. He was the second of eight children of Carlo and Letizia Buonaperte, both of the Corsican-Italian gentry. Before Napoleone, no Buonaparte had ever been a professional soldier. His father Carlo, was a lawyer who had fought for Corsican independence, but after the French occupied the island in 1768, he served as a prosecutor and a judge and entered the French aristocracy as a count. Thro
DemocracyDemocracy Andy Carroll July 8th, 1996 I. Meaning of Democracy II. Summary of Places and Dates III. Features of Democracy IV. Types of Democracy V. Early Democracy A. Athens B. Rome VI. Middle Ages and England VII. The Renaissance A. United States of America B. France VIII. Modern Times IX. Important People Demos Kratia, or democracy, as it is used today, means “ the people rule.” A democracy is a form of government is run by the people of that country through elections and representation. A demo
Military GovernmentsMilitary Governments Charles Aquino Political Science 1/14/97 Military governments have been around since the days of feudalism. It is the oldest and most common political state. According to Shively, a military government is one in which a group of officers use their troops to take over the governmental apparatus and run it themselves. Military governments are usually weak in appeasing the masses for they are known to be brutal and power hungry and are also rather fragile, both internally and e
The French RevolutionThe French Revolution The years before the French Revolution (which started in 1789 AD.) were ones of vast, unexpected change and confusion. One of the changes was the decline of the power of the nobles, which had a severe impact on the loyalty of some of the nobles to King Louis XVI. Another change was the increasing power of the newly established middle class, which would result in the monarchy becoming obsolete. The angry and easily manipulated peasants, who were used by the bourgeoisie for t
Caesar And NaopoleonCaesar And Naopoleon Napoleon Bonaparte\'s success as a military leader and conqueror can also be seen in another great leader, Julius Caesar. Both Napoleon and Caesar achieved great glory by bringing their countries out of turmoil. It was Caesar, that Napoleon modeled himself after, he wanted to be as great, if not greater than Caesar. Looking to the past, Napoleon knew what steps to take in order to achieve success Napoleon devoured books on the art of war. Volume after volume of military theo
CastlesCastles Castles remind us of a time that was full of adventure and romance. Castles remind us of a time in history in which there was a lack of government and order. Although there was not mass confusion and anarchy, there was less order. Castles were the basis of feudalism. Castles can be seen as a manifestation of feudal society. Feudalism started with the rise of castles and ended with their end. The castle set the tone as the only homestead that nobility would live in during this time. Castl
CharlemagneCharlemagne Charlemagne History 101 - Fast Forward Fall 1996 PREPARED BY: SUBMITTED: September 30, 1996 Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, King of the Franks (742-814), was a strong leader who unified Western Europe through military power and the blessing of the Church. His belief in the need for education among the Frankish people was to bring about religious, political, and educational reforms that would change the history of Europe. Charlemagne was born in 742 at Aachen, the son of Pepin(or P
Freud and MArxFreud and MArx Hey! I got an A- on this paper, so I guess it\'s pretty good! I put my own personal spin to it in that not only did I compare Freud and Marx\'s viewpoints, I stated that perhaps what they saw in society was just a reflection of their own biases and personal inner feelings. Humanities Assignment Freud and Marx it can be argued were both, as individuals, dissatisfied with their societies. Marx more plainly than Freud, but Freud can also be seen as discontent in certain aspects such
FuedlismFuedlism Feudalism Well, most people don’t recognise this, but the chess board at your house or that you have know is call The Feudal System. The kings and the queen, the knights, castles, bishop …… they are base on this historic system. Well it was first, in the early time of our history, most of the people live their live their live by hard work on their land, and there was so much war going on that time, and that justice was unfair. Sooo, the weak would look to the strong for help, and prot
Medieval Europe And The RenaissanceMedieval Europe And The Renaissance When I look at the conflicts that medieval European people faced and the conflicts that modern people face, I see a huge difference. Our government, economics, science, mobility, art, literacy and health are very different. Some aspects of religion are different, but not many. The Black Death and feudalism are some major contributions to the medieval times. The Black Death is known as a beneficial divider between the central and Middle Ages. The changes are nu
Middle Ages EconomyMiddle Ages Economy Middle Age Economy The economy mostly seen in the early middle ages was feudalism, Europe’s form of government in the Middle Ages, was developed in the fifth century to meet the changing needs of the time. It was based heavily on the honor system. The king had overall power, then the lord, then the vassals, or landowners, and finally down to the peasants, known then as the villeins. The fiefs, or estates, could be rented out to one vassal who would then rent portions of the f
Middle Ages Vs. The RenaissanceMiddle Ages Vs. The Renaissance There are many contrasts in the beliefs and values of the Renaissance and the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages was a time of great suffering, including famine and widespread disease. The Renaissance, however, was a revival of art, learning, and literature. Their views of the purpose of life in the present world and man\'s place in the world was, perhaps, the greatest contrast. However, their views on politics, religion, and education were very different as well. The p
NapoleonNapoleon In the early 19th century a man by the name of Napoleon Bonaparte led a Coup D’etat that created a new government in France. This new government started out with a tribunal leadership, which Napoleon was first consul, and later changed to an empire with Napoleon as emperor. Some people believe that he made the revolution better and expanded the revolution but this is not true. The facts, when closely looked at, prove that Napoleon effectively destroyed the revolution by telling the peop
Napoleon: The War HeroNapoleon: The War Hero Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, and was given the name Napoleone Buonaperte. He was the second of eight children of Carlo and Letizia Buonaperte, both of the Corsican-Italian gentry. Before Napoleone, no Buonaparte had ever been a professional soldier. His father Carlo, was a lawyer who had fought for Corsican independence, but after the French occupied the island in 1768, he served as a prosecutor and a judge and entered the French aristocracy as
The Role of the Emperor in Meiji JapanThe Role of the Emperor in Meiji Japan Within this historical context the Meiji leaders realized that they needed to harness the concept of the Imperial Will in order to govern effectively. During the Age of Imperialism, members of the Satsuma and Choshu, two of the very powerful clans in Japan, were parts of the opposition to foreign imperialism. This opposition believed that the only way that Japan could survive the encroachment of the foreigners was to rally around the Emperor. The supporters
The Roots Of Communist ChinaThe Roots Of Communist China To say that the Chinese Communist revolution is a non-Western revolution is more than a clich‚. That revolution has been primarily directed, not like the French Revolution but against alien Western influences that approached the level of domination and drastically altered China\'s traditional relationship with the world. Hence the Chinese Communist attitude toward China\'s traditional past is selectively critical, but by no means totally hostile. The Chinese Communis
The Canterbury Tales: AnalysisThe Canterbury Tales: Analysis The Canterbury Tales are a series of stories written by the late, great English poet Geoffrey Chaucer. The tales are about a group of twenty-nine pilgrims who set off on a pilgrimage to a cathedral in Canterbury, England, about five miles south of London. The cathedral was a special place. It was a shrine where the archbishop Thomas A. Becket was murdered in 1170. This was the pilgrimage the twenty nine characters would make. They would start at the Tabard Inn in S
Knights and ChivalryKnights and Chivalry Chivalry was a system of ethical ideals developed among the knights of medieval Europe. Arising out of the feudalism of the period, it combined military virtues with those of Christianity, as epitomized by he Arthurian legend in England and the chansons de geste of medieval France. The word chivalry is derived from the French chevalier, meaning horseman or knight. Chivalry was the code of conduct by which knights were supposedly guided. In addition to military prowess and va
As the World TurnsAs the World Turns The Canterbury Tales through written during the 14th century , tells the story of characters with the same traits, values and characteristics of people we may know today or have read about in history. I will describe the characteristics, values, and beliefs of three characters, namely; the Franklin, the Knight, the Parson. I will attempt to show that as the world turns, people seem to remain the same. Chaucer in his writing of this story used feudalism when identifying his cha
Evaluation of Canterbury TalesEvaluation of Canterbury Tales Chivalry was a system of ethical ideals developed among the knights of medieval Europe. Arising out of the feudalism of the period, it combined military virtues with those of Christianity, as epitomized by he Arthurian legend in England and the chansons de geste of medieval France. The word chivalry is derived from the French chevalier, meaning horseman or knight. Chivalry was the code of conduct by which knights were supposedly guided. In addition to military prow
The French RevolutionThe French Revolution I. Absolutism A. Absolutism defined 1. In the absolutist state, sovereignty resided in kings--not the nobility or the parliament--who considered themselves responsible to God alone. 2. Absolute kings created new state bureaucracies and standing armies, regulated all the institutions of government, and secured the cooperation of the nobility. a. Some historians deny that absolutism was a stage of development that followed feudalism, but, instead, was administrative monarchy.
The Black PlagueThe Black Plague THESIS Without the effects in European population caused by the Black Plague, the government, economy, social structure, food, and land structure would have remained in a less advanced, feudalistic state. PRELUDE TO THE BLACK DEATH The years before the Black Death can easily explain the lack of preparedness by Europeans. Directly before the Black Death, trade had stagnated. This was Europe’s main source of income, which triggered a fall in their economy. From the previous prospe
Queen Isabella – The Soul of the InquisitionQueen Isabella – The Soul of the Inquisition Modern Western Civilisations Nov. 19 2001 As the end of the 15th century was approaching, King Henry IV, ruler of Castille passed away, leaving his kingdom in the hands of his sister Isabella. When she married Ferdinand, King of Aragon, they united the Spanish nation, and were about to be remembered as the most famous and significant rulers of Spain. This unity reduced the power of the nobles, who before this time had held so much power that they were
Asian Philosophies of Critical Thinking EXTENDED EAsian Philosophies of Critical Thinking EXTENDED ESSAYAsian Philosophies of Critical Thinking: divergent or convergent to western establishments? MAY 2003 AbstractThe research question of this extended essay came across at a very early stage in my life. Having been born and developed from a family with all its members being University instructors and professors, I was often involved in arguments related to the lack of critical thinking in Asian cultures. As I got older, having had the chance to
Brief History of the English LanguageBrief History of the English Language OLD ENGLISH UNTIL 1066. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE Old English (500-1100 AD) Old English Words The Angles came from an angle-shaped land area in contemporary Germany. Their name Angli from the Latin and commonly-spoken, pre-5th Century German mutated into the Old English Engle . Later, Engle changed to Angel-cyn meaning Angle-race by A.D. 1000, changing to Engla-land . Some Old English words which have survived intact include: feet, geese, teeth, me
Lessons of the socialist planned (Soviet) economy Lessons of the socialist planned (Soviet) economy Econ 4313 A long time ago the chancellor of Germany, Bismarck, said the following after reading the “Communist Manifesto” by Marx and Engels, “This is very interesting. But now we have to find a country that we wouldn’t pity to do an experiment on”. Russia was to be the country that this experiment would take place in. The main part of the experiment consisted of running a Socialist planned economy which is defined as the state of economy, where
A Political Theory Compare and Contrast EssayA Political Theory Compare and Contrast Essay AP Government November 11, 2003 Through out history, various nations biggest struggle has been its search for a stable government that satisfies the people and is strong enough to defend itself. There are many different forms of government, which essentially originate from four core political theories. These ideals, under close examination are so controversial that even today nations are still struggling with the very issue of governmental tactics. T
The French RevolutionThe French Revolution There have been many revolutions in the past which have changed the futures of entire nations. The French Revolution was one of the most well-known revolutions due to its effects both inside and outside France. The revolution brought a major transformation in both the political system and the society. France went from a monarchy to a republic of free and equal citizens. Crane Briton observed the stages of a major revolution. The French Revolution conforms to Crane Briton’s
Communist ManifestoCommunist Manifesto Chapter 1 Summary: Bourgeois and Proletarians The Communist Manifesto begins with Marx\'s famous generalization that the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles (79). Marx describes these classes in terms of binary oppositions, with one party as oppressor, the other as oppressed. While human societies have traditionally been organized according to complex, multi-membered class hierarchies, the demise of feudalism effected by the French Revol
Who Started The French Revolution?Who Started The French Revolution? Advanced Placement European History 2 January 1997 The Revolution was unavoidable. Whether the government and the population of France saw it approaching or not, the country could no longer function subordinate to the Old Regime. So although it was maybe unanticipated, the insurrection was not unwarranted or in any way escapable. The motives that arose over centuries were also perpetuated by negligence, class antagonism and, when the effort was there, ignored e
Age of Faith, Age of Feudalism and the Dark AgesAge of Faith, Age of Feudalism and the Dark Ages World History April 5, 2004 The tittles; Age of Faith, Age of Feudalism and the Dark Ages all well represent the Middle Ages, but Age of Faith is the greater among equals. This is because religious faith increases a lot during the whole middle ages, yet the other three titles happened at different times, and were not as permanent as religion was. During the Middle Ages religion was very important, and church officials were almost as powerful as po
CharlemagneCharlemagne Charlemagne was born around 742 in Aachen, a city in the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia, located in what is now Germany. His real name was Charles, he wasn\'t called Charlemagne, which is from the Latin Carolus Magnus, until after his death. His father, Pepin or Pippin III, was elected king of the Frankish Empire when Charlemagne was a child. The king was nicknamed Pepin the Short, while his wife, Charlemagne\'s mother Bertrada, was nicknamed Bertha of the Big Foot, or Queen Goosefoot
MarxismMarxism Introduction to Sociology Research Essay Define this perspective and outline in detail its goals, methods, fundamental concepts, and principle contributors. Evaluate the usefulness of this perspective in understanding social life and social interaction. Issues to consider could include: famous and controversial theories; the problem of social order; class, gender, ethnicity, media or religion Word count: 1,216 Due: Tuesday, 16th March 2004 No thinker in the 19th Century has had such a di
New YorkNew York In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano, an Italian exploring for France, sailed into the New York Harbor. He was the first European to enter the harbor. Although Verrazano explored the area, no Europeans decided to settle or further explore the area until much later (Microsoft, New York). The Dutch East India Company hired Henry Hudson, an Englishman, to explore northern America in search for a Northwest Passage to Asia. On September 3, 1609 he and his crew sailed into the New York Harbor on th
MarismMarism I. Introduction II. Marxism A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Economic Evolution III. Resource Mobilization Theory (RMT) A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: The Parliament versus the Crown IV. Institutional Theory A. Definition & Explanation B. Example: Social Change V. Conclusion Human relationships have always been dynamic. Change and adaptability have gone hand in hand with the passage of time for human society. Systems have been developed to regulate, direct and control the
Percy Bysshe ShellyPercy Bysshe Shelly In order to understand Percy Bysshe Shelly¹s work, one must understand his life and his characteristic. Shelly was one of the most intellectual and sensitive poets of the Romantic period. Most of his famous works were written during the last four years of his life, when he lived in Italy with his second wife Mary. The text Adventures of English Literature contains two sonnets and one poem by Shelly. The angelic characteristic of Percy Bysshe Shelly was thoroughly expressed th
The PreciseThe Precise Q: If you had to identify the most significant causes of the Revolution, what would they be? A: First and foremost, it would be most important to analyse the political situation of France before the Revolution. The long reign of Louis the XIV (1643-1715) marked absolute monarchy at its peak in France. When Louis XIII died the next in line to take the throne was only 5 years old, Louis XIV. His mother ruled for him along side the new Chief Minister, Mazarin, who had been trained by Ri
Medieval EuropeMedieval Europe There were many advantages of the movement in Medieval Europe for a feudal structure of society to the growth and establishments of towns. Although King Louis IX improved the feudal system in many ways, the establishments of towns were truly a better from of society. Some of the advantages of the establishment of towns were the idea of peace, the improvements in the economy, and the development of a court system. The idea of peace being the most important goal, was one of the man
EnglandEngland England (Latin Anglia), political division of the island of Great Britain, constituting, with Wales, the principal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland, another division of the United Kingdom. Established as an independent monarchy many centuries ago, England in time achieved political control over the rest of the island, all the British Isles, and vast sections of the world, becoming