Tithing System


Tithing system- every male was enrolled in a group of ten families, which was called a tithing. If one person in that tithing committed a crime then every person in that group would pay the fine. Later in time them became shire-reeve much like our modern day countires.


Sir Robert Peel pushed the Metro police act through parliament. Metro police act of 1829 was the 1st modern police force was est. in London bye Bob Peel ( was to have full time protection against crime).


1st night watch was in 1801 Boston and the watchmen were paid 50 cents a night.


Political Era- 1840-1930. Provide range of social services to citizenry. Patrolled on foot. Widespread corruption and brutality.


Professionalism- increase training, Vollmer also championed the use of technology in police work.


Professional model- a style of policing advocated by Vollmer and O.W. Wilson that emphasizes centralized police organizations, increases use of tech. and limitation of police discretion through regulations and guidelines.


Community Era- 1980-Present. Continue to control crime while providing a broader range of social services.


Largest agency is New York Police Dept.


In the US there are over 13500 law enforcement agencies.


-3088 sheriffs depts.


-1332 special agencies


-49 state dept.


-50 federal agencies


Coroner- (medical examiner) investigates all sudden, unexplained, unnatural or suspicious deaths.


State Patrol- have state wide jurisdiction


Highway Patrol- limited by jurisdiction or by specific types of offenses they have the authority to control.


Federal law agencies- enforce specific laws or attend to specific situations.


FBI- est. in 1908. Have jurisdiction over 200 federal crimes, sabotage, espionage, kidnapping, and extortion, interstate transportation of stolen property, back robbery, interstate gambling, and civil rights violations.


Dept. of Justice – is FBI, Immigration and naturalization service, drug enforcement administration, and US Marshals.


Private Security- security hired privately.


Pinkerton- est. in 1860. Private security.


Structure of the Police Dept. - chief of police, administration, and patrol.


-Deputy chief- patrol officers, traffic unit, and investigations.


-Administration-records property-planning analysis, school liaison- and front desk.


Incident-driven policing-a reactive approach to policing that emphasizes a speedy response to calls for service.


Differential response-a strategy for answering calls for service in which response time is adapted to the seriousness of the call.


Clearance rate-percentage of crimes solved over any given time. 45% for violent crimes, 17% for burglaries.


Backbone of policing-patrol officers are consider the most valuable members for the force.


Problem solving policing- a policing philosophy that requires police to identify potential criminal activity and develop strategies to prevent or respond to that activity.


Broken windows theory-Wilson and Kelling’s theory that a neighborhood in disrepair signals that criminal activity is tolerated in the area. Thus, by cracking down on quality of life crimes, police can reclaim the neighborhood and encourage law abiding citizens to live and work there.


4th Amendment- search and seizures.


Search and seizures- the legal term as found in the 4th amendment of the US Constitution that generally refers to the searching for and the confiscation of evidence by law enforcement agents.


Probable cause- reasonable grounds to believe the existence of facts warranting certain actions, such as the search or arrest of a person.


-a crime was committed and the individual committed the crime. Involves likelihood that they committed the crime.


Exclusionary rule-a rule under which any evidence that is obtained in violation of the accused’s rights under the 4th,5th, and 6th amendments, as well as any evidence derived from illegally obtained evidence, will not be admissible in criminal court.


Fruit of poisoned tree-evidence that is acquired through the use of illegally obtained evidence and is therefore inadmissible in court.


Stops and frisks- 1 briefly detain a person they reasonably believe to be suspicious, and 2 if they believe the person to be armed, proceed to pat down that persons outer clothing. Terry v. Ohio


Element of an arrest-



o The intent to arrest.
o The authority to arrest.
o Seizure or detention.
o The understanding of the person that they have been arrested.
Consent searches-searches by police that are make after the subject of the search has agreed to the action.


Interrogation- the direct questioning a suspect or witness during the preliminary and follow up investigations. Miranda v. Az.


Reasonable force-



o to prevent the escape of a fleeing felony suspect
o to retake a suspect after an escape attempt
o to overcome an offenders resistance to a lawful