The Use of Dramatic Monologue to Create Moral Dilemma in Brow

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Trials and hearings take place frequently in our society today. In a trial, it is the job of two lawyers to persuade a jury to see a situation a certain way, regardless if it is the right way, the truthful way, or if it is even the way they themselves see it. It is then the jury\'s obligation, after listening to both sides of the story, to make a decision based on the evidence presented, and in most cases, the evidence is either not presented in its entirety or overwhelmingly slanted to fit one side\'s particular case. Therefore it is up to the juror to be able to throw away the false information, and to pick out the shreds of truth and make a conclusion based on them. This process, which is extremely common in today\'s society, was also common in the Victorian Age, in Victorian poetry, in the use of dramatic monologue. Perfected by Robert Browning in the mid nineteenth century, dramatic monologue very closely mirrors modern society\'s legal institution. In comparison, the reader is the jury, the speaker of the poem is the lawyer, and, thinking more abstractly, the author, Robert Browning in this case, represents the case as a whole. The decision the jury must make between what is actually right and what the lawyers imply to be right is the same one the reader of a dramatic monologue must make. Browning\'s Dramatic Lyrics is a collection of poems in which many are written in dramatic monologue. "Porphyria\'s Lover" is a poem from Dramatic Lyrics critics often cite when explaining dramatic monologue. Because of it, the reader is pulled between what the speaker thinks is right and what really is. Robert Browning\'s perfection of dramatic monologue and use of a dramatic mask in his poem "Porphyria\'s Lover" create in his audience a conflict between sympathy and judgement (Magill, 335).
To fully understand and comprehend Browning\'s "Porphyria\'s Lover," one must understand dramatic monologue. Robert Langbaum makes a few observations about dramatic monologues. One of his observations is that speakers in them never change their minds. A second observation is that

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the speaker uses his dramatic monologue to pursue a meaning for himself, and learn something about himself as well as learn something about reality (qtd. In Lucie-Smith, 16). In a dramatic monologue, "everything the reader hears is limited to what the speaker sees, thinks, and chooses to tell" (Magill, 338). Agreeing with Magill, Ian Scott-Kilvert says, "[the reader is] provided with no reason tosuppose the speaker\'s words are not to be taken at face value, even though [he knows] that [he is] receiving one man\'s version of events, which is necessarily incomplete" (360). When reading a dramatic monologue, the reader must come to a conclusion about facts and issues raised in the poem by making use of material presented in the poem (Scott-Kilvert, 360). A final textbook definition of dramatic monologue is from John D. Cooke. He writes that a dramatic monologue ". . . condenses a complex psychological study and a tense situation of conflict into a single climactic speech" (157). In applying this concept to "Porphyria\'s Lover," the tense situation of conflict is simply the fact that the speaker just strangled the woman who loves him, and who he loves. In the poem, the reader, observing only the perspective of the speaker, is led to believe that his killing Porphyria was ". . .perfectly pure and good" (Browning, 37). According to the speaker, Porphyria felt no pain while he was killing her using her own "long yellow string" of hair (39). Everything the speaker says, implies that his decision was the right one, and the only one possible. Magill (338) says, "Exultant that he has done the perfect thing, he [the speaker] ends his speech with the words, ‘And yet God has not said a word!\'" Critics are quick to accuse Browning of failure to construct his own framework of ethical and moral values in his poems and characters. This is because his character is not representing himself. Browning hides behind a sort of dramatic mask that conceals his own feelings, beliefs and morals from his audience, so the character can be a unique one, not modeled