The scientific Revolution

In fact the foremost cause of the change in worldview was the industrial revolution. Science was primarily a branch of theology, and it reinforced religious thought. As a matter of fact, Aristotle science as interpreted by Christian theologians fit nearly with Christian doctrine. Concerning the Copernican hypothesis that stated that sun rather than the earth as Aristotle though was at the center of the universe. It really had huge consequences especially in the religious area since earth became just a planet among many others. This theory brought sharp attacks from religious leaders. This hypothesis was later proved by Kepler who came up with a sun centered (solar) system and other famous laws. Galileo also came up with a law called a law of inertia. Newton came up with the law of universal gravitation. The causes of this scientific revolution were first the long-term contribution of medieval. Intellectual and medieval universities by training lawyers, doctors… Second the renaissance also stimulated scientific progress since powerful, wealthy business people were supporting it. Third, the navigational problems of long sea voyages stimulated that revolution. Finally, Protestantism was also stimulating that revolution. Thus the scientific revolution of the seventh century was first and foremost an intellectual revolution. For more than a hundred years its greatest impact was on how people thought and believed.

The enlightenment:

The scientific revolution was the single most important factor in the creation of the new worldview of the eighteenth century enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers believed it was at least possible for human beings to create better societies and better people. In fact, the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, a large portion of Western Europe educated elite had embraced many of the new ideas through the influence of philosophers, who like fontenel and other workers were bringing science into conflict with religion. Science mixed the globalization of science and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Unlike Montesquieu Voltaire pessimist Ely concluded that the best one would hope for the way of government was a good monarch since human beings are very rarely worthy to govern themselves. Like other enlightenment thinkers, Rousseau was passionately committed to individual freedom. This contribution to political theory was the social contact (1762) in which the general wall and popular sovereignty. In addition to this, the writing and pres complains of the philosophers are parts of a profound cultural transformation: the European

Market for books grew dramatically in the 18th century. Another new concept was salon of the thé in which educated members of the intellectual, economic and social. Where people can discuss and debate issues and form their own ideas and their public opinion.

The enlightenment and Absolutism:

The French philosophers and linked spirits in most European countries were primarily interested in converting people to critical scientific thinkers and were not particularly concerned with politics. On the other hand, such thinking naturally led to political criticism.

And interest in political reform as both possible and desirable. In fact, it was necessary only for educate and enlighten who could then make good laws and promote human happiness. Among those leaders we have first Frederick the great of Prussia (1740-1786), who tolerantly allowed his subject to believe as they wished in religious and philosophical matters. Secondly, we have Catherine the great Russia (1762-1796) first she worked hard to brig the sophisticated culture of western Europe to Russia, then it insisted on domestic reform through better laws, finally she focused on territorial expansion with a lot of success. Thirdly, the leaders of Austria, the Austrian Hapsburgs, the first one was Maria Theresa who was determined to introduce reforms that would make the state stronger and more efficient. The second one was Joseph who abolished seldom in 1718 without success because both nobility and peasants violently rejected it. Finally, concerning absolutism in France in 1715 the duke restored the parlement and its right to evaluate royal degree publicly thereafter, the parlement of Paris protested and challenged the basis of royal authority claiming that the king’s power has to be limited. The judicial opposition asserted that the king could not apply heavy taxes without the consent of the parliament.