The Roy Adaptation Model


Roy began work on her theory in the 1960s. She drew from existing work
of a physiological psychologist, and behavioral, systems and role theorists. She
was keenly interested in the psycho/social aspects of the person from the start
and concentrated her education on this aspect of Person. Thus, the
language/thinking of psychology and sociology became second nature to her. The
need for intense study of the language and ideas behind Roy\'s Adaptation Model
is its biggest drawback in applying it to many clinical areas. The confusion in
the physiological mode\'s categories could be explained by her concentrating on
the psych social during her education.
In 1980, Roy and Reihl advocated a single unified model of nursing and
suggested this would insure stability of the discipline of nursing. They
maintained concepts and propositions of other models could be combined in
summary statements related to person, goals of nursing and the nursing process.
According to Fawcett, this position is a simplistic solution to a difficult
problem. Nursing, with its limited experience with metaparadigms and conceptual
models, is not ready for restrictions on its ways of thinking. It\'s my belief
that this act of advocating a single unified model was an act of multi-oppressed
thinking influenced by men, the Roman Catholic Church and the medical world.
During a 1987 conference of nursing theorists, Sister Roy made a number
of deferring remarks to a speech made earlier by a male Bishop.
Fawcett also says the Roy Adaptation Model has an extensive vocabulary
and that some familiar words (ie adaption) have been given new meanings in Roy\'s
attempt to translate mechanistic ideas into organismic ones.

Oppressed Group Behaviour:

-assimilating the values and characteristics of the Oppressors. -Nursing leaders
represent an elite group promoted because of their allegiance to maintaining the
status quo. -leaders of Oppressed Groups are controlling, coercive and rigid.

Oppressors:

-education is important to maintaining the status quo. -Roy\'s Model follows the
Medical Model and tends to be Totalitarian and therefore is familiar to Medicine
- they would want to encourage it. -behaviour preferred by Oppressors is
rewarded. -token appeasement (approval) is given to halt change or revolt.

The contributions of this conceptual model are that it will lead to more
systematic assessments of clients and an increased quality of nursing practice.
It could foster nursing knowledge through organized research and it could
provide a more organized curriculum.

Roy\'s definition of person

Roy defines the person as an Adaptive Open System. The Systems\' Input
is: a) three classes of stimuli: focal, contextual and residual, within and
without the system and b) the systems\' adaptation level or range of stimuli in
which responses will be adaptive. Inputs are mediated by the systems\' Regulator
(psychological) and Cognator (Psych/social aspects of person) subsystems. The
system runs into difficulty when coping activity is inadequate as a result of
need deficits or excesses. System effectors (body organs that become active with
stimulation) are the four modes (physiological, self concept, role function and
interdependence) that the Cognator and Regulator can demonstrate activity
through. Output of the person as system may be adaptive or ineffective. Adaptive
responses contribute to the goals of the system ie: survival, growth promotion,
reproduction and self mastery. Ineffective responses do not contribute to the
systems\' goals.
The person receives nursing care. Roy implies the client has an active
role in care and that he is a bio-psycho-social being who constantly interacts
with a changing environment.
The focus of nursing is the person. Roy in 1978, commented that although
the model may be applied to family, community in society it was developed
specifically for the person (medical model influence - Totalitarianism)
Perception links the Cognator and Regulator. Inputs to the Regulator are
transformed into perception. Perception is a process of the Cognator, responses
following perception are feedback into both the Regulator and Cognator.
Of the Cognator, there are three modes described by Roy. Self concept is
the need for psychic integrity and perception of worth.
Role function is the need for social integrity, and interaction with
others. Interdependence is the balance of dependence/ independence with others.
I like the concept of person as open systems and the concept of dividing
\'stimuli\' into focal, contextual and residual categories. There is definitely a
need for more emphasis and understanding of the person\'s: cognitive coping
mechanisms.
Again, Roy tends to imply that the person/adaptive system is reacting to
and trying to \'fit\' into his surroundings - another manifestation of the Roman
Catholic fatalistic view of mankind.
Persons, family, communities are capable of affecting their environment
and letting it affect and expand their capabilities at the same time. It does
not have to be \'God\'s