The Renaissance Period

Italy began to flourish in the 15th century and began to become a rich state. Italian cities grew in population and wealth structuring a new order and class in Italy. Humanism, exploration and trade caused medieval Europe to transform into the modern world.
As the Italian cities began to grow, idealist\'s concepts became more open to society. These idealists would begin the birth of humanism. Literature was becoming more open allowing people like Francesco Petrarch, the "father of humanism" to begin to write love sonnets and poetry. The introduction of humanism would allow a new attitude towards literature and morality. Now Italy would start embracing new art in its culture from other areas around the world. Chinese influence would be seen in the art of this time, but also humanist new views would allow religion to be viewed in the art. The art would take life experience and religious connotations to explore new boundaries. Such artists and sculptures as Michelangelo, Leonardo Devinchi, Donatello and Raphael pushed the boundaries of art to a new level. Art was not only seen as picturesque, it was seen as symbolic truth and realism.
Nothing can express this better than the works of Michelangelo who has been acknowledge as an idealist. Michelangelo works have been considered as highly respected as Machiavelli because of the true realism that he is able to express. Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, architect and poet and he expressed himself in the similar matter in each of his works. Michelangelo is considered the greatest artist to come out of Flourentine, with his works through out the Sistine Chapel. The most recognised piece of work at the Sistine Chapel would be the painting of the \'Last Judgement\' which reflects an "anguish which far removed from the mellifluous poetry and prose of the Roman writers of the time." Raphael should not be underestimated, his fresco work \'The School of Athens\' is still praised today by art historians. Although many say that Raphael works are much to be compared to Leonardo De Vinci, he cultivated a much more expressive approach. "The lasting of his style is due primarily to his ennobling humanism, for he portrayed the members of the human species as temperate, wise, and dignified beings."
Humanists would know challenge the old way of life and be an independent social class. Humanists were now studying the classical ways of the Greek and Latin manuscripts thus emerging a new social class in society. "Social intercourse in its highest and most perfect form now ignored all distinctions of caste, and was based simply on the existence of an educated class as we now understand the word." No longer would they educate themselves from past references but look into the original source and give their own interpretation of the matter. Greek and Latin literature was the base of the humanists thought and ideas. The idea behind Humanism was to raise your intellect, to speak in proper language and to know the difference between right and wrong. Petrarch\'s motto to humanist was "it is better to will the good and to know the truth." This means of thought was past on to generations of humanists to come.
Exploration allowed new ideas and change to Italy. Especially in the art which took a huge step from medieval times. Allowing artists to express themselves more openly with art and sculpting. Because of this, " their exploration of perspective, of landscape, of the nude, and of human face they opened up a new dimension of art" Exploration also opened up new means of trade with other countries, such as China, and India. Italy, especially Florence, became the grounds of open markets and free trade. Foreign influence had a major impact during this period because of Italy\'s location in Europe. Italy\'s positioning gave them the opportunity to be influenced by both eastern and western societies. These influences allowed the merchant to excel during this period allowing the people below the upper-class to make fortunes. These merchants, "capitalist bankers known as the \'popolo grosso\' or fat people," soon would get involved in exploration and trade. These merchants would contribute to the increase of the economy of many Italian cities.
Despotism rule was seen in Florence where as the wealthy merchants excelled during this time. Cosmo de\'