The Ozone Layer


In environmental science the green house effect is a common term for the
role water vapor; carbon dioxide and ozone play in keeping the earth’s surface
warmer than it would normally be. The atmosphere is primarily transparent to
infrared radiation from the sun, which is mostly absorbed by the earth’s surface.
The earth being much cooler than the sun, remits radiation most strongly at
infrared wavelengths. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone then absorb much of
this radiation and remit a large proportion back towards the earth. The
atmosphere thus acts as a kind of blanket: without its presents the earth’s
average ground temperature of 15 degrees Celsius would fall to -28 degrees
Celsius. The termed greenhouse effect implies that a comparable effect keeps
the interior of the green house warm. Actually, the man role of the glass in a
green house is to prevent convection currents from mixing cooler air outside
with the warmer air inside.
Although water is the most important factor in the greenhouse effect, is
a major reason why human regions experience less cooling at night than do dry
regions. Changes in both water and carbon dioxide play an important role in
climate changes. For this reason many scientist have expressed concerns over
the global increase of carbon dioxide in resent decades, largely as a result of
the burring of fossil fuels. In many other factors of the earth’s present
climate remain more or less constant, the carbon dioxide increase should raise
the average temperature at the earth’s surface. Because warm air can contain
warm water before reaching saturation than cooler air can, the amount of water
would probably increase as the atmosphere got warmer . This process could go on
forever. Although this considered unlikely many negative feed backs could as so
occur, such as increase in cloud cover or increase carbon dioxide absorption
by the oceans, the results of even a limited rise in average surface temperature
remains sufficiently dramatic to justify concern.
In October 1983 the US Environmental Protection Agency released a report
that projected the irreversible onset of the greenhouse effect by the 1990’s.
Shortly there after the National Academy of Sciences issued its own report, in
which the matter of irreversibility remain more in question. Both reports,
however, strongly indicated the need for measures to check the rise in carbon
dioxide.
No matter what term you use global warming or greenhouse effect, they
both play a major role in the earth’s climate. Climate researchers are
attempting to predict, based on ocean and air circulation, how great an increase
there will be. If global warming continues then the polar ice caps will melt and
most of the earth will be flooded and a lot of lives will be lost.
The Ozone is located in the stratosphere, approximately 10 km - 50 km
above the earth. The density of ozone gas at zero degrees Celsius is 1 ATM.
The Ozone is relatively unstable form of molecular oxygen containing three
oxygen atoms (O ). Radiation from the sun continuously bombards the Earth’s
atmosphere, causing molecules to break apart into component elements that form
into new chemical compounds. Ozone is produced when upper-atmosphere oxygen
molecules (O ) are broken apart by ultra-violet light. Most of the freed oxygen
atoms immediately bond with nearby oxygen molecules to form ozone (O + O =O ).
The only method used to make commercially is to pass gaseous oxygen or air
through a high voltage alternating-current electric discharge called a silent
electric discharge. Ozone near the earth’s surface is generally regarded to as
a bad . It is created from industrial, transportation, and some natural
sources. It is the most noxious component of smog. All high concentration, 0
is known to reduce human lung capacity, as well as damage the cells of many
plants, animals, and other organisms. For these reasons, ozone is treated as
and air pollutant in most industrial countries. Furthermore, O in the upper
troposphere is a powerful greenhouse gas and is believed to play a role in
global warming.
On the other hand, ozone in the stratosphere is highly valued. It
serves as a protective radiation shield that interprets solar ultraviolet light
harmful to living things. Ultraviolet light splits the relatively unstable O
molecules into O and atomic O. Most of the time, the O atom created by Ozone
breakup recombines with one of the plentiful O molecules to re-form O . This
Ozone-creation process is constantly at work producing more ozone. Scientist
can’t predict with certainly the consequences for life on the earth if the
stratosphere ozone layer weakens. In general, biologists and health
professionals recognize