"The New Woman"
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in a rail car for whites only. A supreme court case that established the doctrine of "separate but equal is equal" and upheld a Louisiana law requiring blacks and whites occupy separate rail cares. It was applied to schools in Cumming vs. County Board of Education in 1899. It was a setback for black rights until the doctrine was finally overturned in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. It was used as precedent until 1954. It is said that the overturning of P v. F was the start of the Civil Rights movement in the 20th century. l
The Souls of Black Folk

A classic work of African American Literature by WEB Du Bois in 1903. The book encouraged blacks to improve their circumstances through education and seek professional careers in medicine, law, and dentistry. Educated professionals would become part of what Du Bois called the "talented tenth", leading others in the community to improve their economic standing. The book also attacked Booker T. Washington's accommodations approach to Civil Rights, by encouraging blacks to protest Jim Crow Segregation and demand equal opportunity for all.
Social Darwinism
Between 1877 and the 1890's, Social Darwinism limited impact on American thinking. The ideology of Social Darwinism was constantly under attack, especially by reformers who tried to challenge this way of thinking. They believed that you can make society better. Social Darwinism was based on the writings of English social philosopher Herbert Spencer. He took the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin and applied Darwinian principles of natural selection to society. "If they are not sufficiently complete to live, and it is well they should live. If they are no sufficiently complete to live, they die, and it is best they should die"
The Ocala Demands
The Pullman Strike- May 1894 in Chicago
After the economic crisis of 1893 there was a rise in unemployment and labor unions. George Pullman was one of the business men who saw the effects of this crisis on his business. He started to cut wages, lay off workers but everything remained priced high in the town. Eugene V. Debs, the American Railway Union (ARU) pioneered the Pullman Strike. It was one of the largest strikes in the country's history. It shut down the railroad system. Workers refused to work on trains with Pullman cars attached to it. President Cleveland ordered federal troops to put down this strike but it did not come to end until July of that year. This strike had far-reaching consequences on for the development of the labor movement. Supreme court endorsed the use of the injunction in labor disputes. The ARU collapsed and Eugene V. Debs was arrested and imprisoned but it also catapulted him into prominence. After his release from prison, he worked to build the socialist party of America which experienced some success after 1900.
William Jennings Bryan- 36, little political experience, very good public speaker
The Anti- Cleveland democrats had their issue but lacked a leader in Nebraska. Bryan saw that opportunity and swooped in. At the 1896 Democratic convention, democrats demanded the free coinage of silver, they attacked Cleveland's actions and censured his sales of gold bonds. Bryans speech at the Democratic convention won him the presidential nominee. William McKinley's victory initiated a generation of Republican dominance in national politics. Bryan's 1896 campaign, however, marked a long-term shift within the Democratic party from a Jacksonian commitment to minimal government toward a positive view of government.
Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis- immediate best seller and made Strong a national celebrity.
As Anglo-Saxons were members of a god-favored race destined to lead the world- in the "final competition" of the races Anglo-Saxons would take over more of the earth (more than the 1/3 they were already accountable for) Josiah strong wrote this book in 1885. He was a congressional minister and fervent expansionist. He participated in overseas missionary work and he traveled extensively through the west for the Home Missionary Society. Drawing on those experiences he wrote Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis." Josiah Strong championed American missionary expansionism by arguing that God had "divinely