æThe increasing application of Scientific Manageme
This essay æThe increasing application of Scientific Manageme has a total of 2065 words and 13 pages.
æThe increasing application of Scientific Management principl
‘The increasing application of Scientific Management principles of work organisations to services is, despite its limitations, inevitable and irreversible’. Discuss.
‘The increasing application of Scientific Management principles of work organisations to services is, despite its limitations, inevitable and irreversible’. Discuss.
From the outset of this essay it is necessary to define the basic principles of Scientific Management in order for the statement to be fully understood and why if at all such a practice is ‘inevitable’ and indeed ‘irreversible’ within a service industry context.
The underlying belief that scientific management, or rationalisation= , is able to provide the basis for separating management from the execution of work. ‘The rationalisation of work has the effect of transferring functions of planning, allocation and co-ordination to managers, whilst reinforcing the managerial monopoly of decision-making, motivation and control’. Hales (1994).
Taylor (1856-1915) has been referred to as the father of Scientific Management. He believed that management, not labour, was the cause of and potential solution to problems in the industry. Taylor concluded that workers systematically ‘soldiered’ because they believed that faster work would put them out of a job and because hourly or daily wages destroyed individual incentive. Taylor believed that in order to discourage, and indeed halt, this ‘soldiering’ a ‘mental revolution’ was required. He believed this could be achieved via four vital principles: (1) the development of the best work method, via systematic observation, measurement and analysis; (2) the scientific selection and development of workers; (3) the relating and bringing together of the best work method and the developed and trained worker; (4) the co-operation of managers and non-managers which includes the division of work and the managers responsibility of work.
From this five key facets have evolved that lie at the foundation of scientific management. Hales (1994) has summarised these as follows:
- systematic standardised work methods via mechanisation and standard times.
- a clean functional division between managers and non-mangers. Braverman (1974) described this as the ‘separation of conception from execution’.
- centralised planning and control.
- an instrumental, low-involvement employment relationship due to the requirement of the individual employee being that of just carrying out their specified low-skilled task.
- an ideology of neutral technical efficiency.
Industries that have embraced such scientific management methods have essentially deskilled the workforce, often by menial, repetitive tasks, and have attempted to replace workers with machines wherever technically feasible and economic. A classic example of such an application is the Fordist principle of the production line. The remainder of the essay concentrates on the two key aspects of the statement, i.e. that of inevitability and irreversibility.
II Are Scientific Management principles inevitable and irreversible within the service industry ?
It has been suggested that the principles of scientific management have been widely adopted throughout industry.
"The orientation of larger firms towards professional managers, engineers and consultants additionally provided a supportive framework for the rise of Taylorism".
Thompson and Hugh (1990)
Although this rise has certainly been evident within manufacturing industries the service industry has been slower to utilise the principles of rationalisation. The question must therefore be asked why has the sector been slow on the uptake of these beliefs and could the reason for this provide an argument against the suggestion of the ‘inevitability’ of the principles within the service industries.
For rationalisation to be applied three prerequisite conditions are required: clear and single objective (for example maximising profit); hard data ( for example accounting information); and no more than limited and measurable uncertainties (for example normally distributed machine parts). In general these three conditions do not hold in the service sector. Furthermore the quantities and the types of resources differ greatly from manufacturing industries. Within the service sector there is often more labour and less capital. This ‘human emphasis’ greatly limits the application of scientific management principles.
Targett (1995) has identified seven distinctive characteristics that highlight the limitations of applying scientific management principles and therefore raising doubts over the ‘inevitability’ of such management practices being used in the service sector.
- Measurement of output and performance is difficult. Quality of service cannot be measured solely by easily quantifiable data, such as revenue and sales volume alone. For example, the performance of a health care organisation is a combination not only of financial results and patient throughput but also of quality
Topics Related to æThe increasing application of Scientific Manageme
Management, Process management, Manufacturing, Administration, Business, Scientific management, George Ritzer, Operations management, Rationalization
Essays Related to æThe increasing application of Scientific Manageme
Louis Armstrong: From Childhood To AdulthoodLouis Armstrong: From Childhood To Adulthood Louis Armstrong: From Childhood to Adulthood When you think of Louis Armstrong you probably think of a jolly middle-aged man who can play the cornet like no one else, a man who had it all, a man who had the good life. Well, Louis was not always that lucky. From childhood to his adulthood, Louis Armstrong changed much as a person and a musician. He worked very hard to become what he became and did not let anything get in the way of becoming a musician.
Executive Women: Substance Plus StyleExecutive Women: Substance Plus Style PSYC 4310 Executive Women: Substance Plus Style The article Executive Women: Substance Plus Style deals with the issue of whether the abilities and attitudes of male managers are different from those of female managers and that these differences have been used to keep women out of managerial positions. Furthermore, it suggests that it has now become fashionable to state that these differences are favorable and complement the business environment. Lastl
Magazine Article SummariesMagazine Article Summaries To: Mr. Teach – Eng 201 From: name goes here Subject: Major Assignment #3 -- Journal Entries Date: May 8, 2000 JOURNAL #1-- INC. THE MAGAZINE FOR GROWING COMPANIES May 1994. Publisher: James J. Spanfeller, 488 Madison Ave., 6th Floor New York, NY 10022 (212) 326-2600 Audience Statement: Inc. speaks directly to the entrepreneur, sole-proprietor, small business partnerships. Advertising: There were several advertisements including investing, retirement, tax accounting, c
Management Company PorfileManagement Company Porfile COMPANY OVERVIEW Martella Paper Products, Inc. is a paper products producer and distributor to many offices and office supply stores. The company was established in 1979 by Michael Martella. Michael Martella saw the need for a paper company and believed that he could fill that need. Martella Paper Products Inc. has been in business for over 15 years. The company has expanded tremendously in that time. When the company was first established, Mr. Martella could not even
Management Pratices at Sonic CorpManagement Pratices at Sonic Corp SONIC CORPORATION INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFORMATION In 1953 Sonic Corporation was founded by Tony Smith in Shawnee, Oklahoma under a different name of the Top Hat. Tony Smith started the company as a drive-in restaurant featuring hot dogs, hamburgers, and french-fried onion rings. In the mid-50s Smith was asked by Charles Pappe for assistance in establishing a similar restaurant in a rural town also located in Oklahoma. This was the beginning of a partnership
Managing ChangeManaging Change Outline Thesis: Managers of organizations today face a demand for change in their organizations if only because change is so pervasive in the world around them. I. ASSUMPTIONS II. CONDITIONS FOR CHANGE A. Widespread felt need. B. Leadership C. Trust D. Resources 1. Funds 2. Expertise E. Positive organizational history III. DIMENSIONS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS A. Relative advantage of proposed change B. Impact on social relationships of a proposed change C. Magnitude of a proposed cha
Managing Classroom BehaviorManaging Classroom Behavior MANAGING CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR REPORT #1 Managing classroom behavior can be a difficult task, especially if you have a child who is always causing disturbances. Once you have identified that there is a problem, you should ask yourself six simple questions. The first question asked is whether the problem is a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies. As teachers we have a tendency to overlook the fact that what and how we teach can contribute directly to
Neolithic ParkNeolithic Park Neolithic Park A Short Story composed by: Reagan B Honors English II Mrs. Coultas - 3 August 16, 1993 Thanks for that update, Bob, said the aged anchor person. His voice was rough and deep, as though he had been to sea recently and had taken home a throat lined with thick salt water. He sounded too serious, but friendly enough to be a local newscaster for a maximum audience of perhaps 20,000 bored stiff eyes. And now we have a related story about the new sporting goods store he
New Age of TechnologyNew Age of Technology Technology and computers are increasing factors in the collision repair industry. With time being a concern for customers in many cases, the work we do has become easier to manage and faster to produce because of technology. Over the past ten years, equipment technology has increased our productivity. Today, a computerized management system helps you to quickly process repair orders, job costing, and management reporting. Some examples of this new technology are the Shark,
Sex DiscriminationSex Discrimination Despite Legislation for Equal Opportunities, sexism is still in evidence in the workplace. Sexism is a particular concern for society when considering it\'s effect in the workplace. Sexism has always been a particular problem in the labour market especially with the formation of capitalism. In the last half of the 20th century this has been especially highlighted due to the increase of woman entering the labour market. This aroused the need for a legislation for equal opportun
Ordinary People by Judith GuestOrdinary People by Judith Guest dysfunctional family who relate to one another through a series of extensive defense mechanisms, i.e. an unconscious process whereby reality is distorted to reduce or prevent anxiety. The book opens with seventeen year old Conrad, son of upper middle-class Beth and Calvin Jarrett, home after eight months in a psychiatric hospital, there because he had attempted suicide by slashing his wrists. His mother is a meticulously orderly person who, Jared, through projecti
Women As News AnchorsWomen As News Anchors Women in all careers are striving to gain equality in the work force today, and female television news anchors are definitely part of the fight. The road to television news anchoring is a rocky one, where only a few women survive and many fail. Where progress was once thought to have been made, there aren\'t many females getting ahead in the world of television news. Today, there is a very slow, if any, gain in the numbers of women who succeed. There are many questions surr
Possible MajorPossible Major For the subject of my research paper I chose the occupation of Industrial Engineering Technology. This job is very similar to one I might have since my major might be Industrial Technology. The industrial field is one that I am very interested in and offers many different jobs to choose from. A few of the jobs included in the industrial field are; Industrial Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, Industrial Distributor (sales), and various management positions. All of these are demanding
R O V 's and SubmersiblesR O V \'s and Submersibles An ROV is a remotely operated vehicle which is a robot that moves in response to commands given by a human operator or a computer from a distance. Rov\'s mainly consist of a frame, a control system, a propulsion system, a tether management system and some usually have an on board camera. ROV\'s have been used for the last thirty years. They have been doing tasks that divers can\'t, do to Economical and safety reasons. A Submersible is a piece of machinery designed to d
Society's Problems and my role in helping itSociety\'s Problems and my role in helping it Is helping solve the problems of society everyone’s job, or no one’s job. What role would you hope to play, based on your interests and developing skills, in the solution of one or more specific problems? Society\'s Problems and my role in helping it As the problems in society arise, it is the duty of every individual to ease the burden by helping to solve these problems. Too often, individuals pass off that responsibility with the hope that others w
The challenge of writing an essayThe challenge of writing an essay Here I have the challenge of writing an essay. It is one of the things that I dread the most in life. Many times I have been asked to write an essay for English class, and each time I despise it. Yet it has proved to be an invaluable skill, as I am writing one now. Some of the many things that I have learned from writing essays and other projects are time management, open-mindedness, and taking time to relax. You should have done this weeks ago. You’ll be sorry
Tiger WoodsTiger Woods Tiger\'s Real Name: Eldrick Woods. The nick-name Tiger was given to him by his father. It\'s the same nick-name of a South Vietnamese combat buddy, Nguyen Phong, who saved Tiger\'s father\'s life a few times in the Vietnam War. Rumor had it that Tiger was planning to official change his name to Tiger Woods when he turned 21 this past December but sources say he didn\'t do it for some reason. Tiger\'s Dad: Green Beret Lieutenant Colonel Earl Woods served 2 Tours of Duty in the Vietn
The need for Government Intervention in EducationThe need for Government Intervention in Education Reform The Need for Federal Government Involvement in Education Reform by ____________ Political Science 2301 Federal and State Government OVERVIEW For centuries, generations of families have congregated in the same community or in the same general region of the country. Children grew up expecting to earn a living much like their fathers and mothers or other adults in their community. Any advanced skills they required beyond the three R\'s (Readi
The Renaisance ManThe Renaisance Man The Renaissance Man The people with whom we associate in conjunction with our surroundings affect us in many aspects of our life. One prominent individual has had an everlasting affect on my life. He came to me when I was seventeen months old and has been b was seventeen months old. Ever since that day he has been with me, subtly guiding me through all the stages y my side throughout my life. I see his success as a motive to achieve my own ambitions. James Derderian, my father
Alcohol and Fetal Alcohol SyndromeAlcohol and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Alcohol plays a major role in society today. It is constantly being . ...... in our minds through advertisements, whether its commercials or billboards, holidays, or even just at the popular social scene. Alcohol is consumed for many purposes, such as celebrations, to increase romance, out of boredom, or a way to relax. Alcohol is a drug that is depended upon by the majority of our society. Nonetheless, alcohol has very damaging effects, not only does it cause
The threat of accidental nuclear warThe threat of accidental nuclear war The threat of nuclear war puts enough stress on people that an accidental nuclear war could be the result. With more and more of the superpowers defences being controlled by complex computers, the chance of a malfunction increases as well. Add this to normal human error and governmental mistakes and you have a recipe for disaster. For this paper I will be describing examples and systems of the United States, as Canada has no nuclear weapons, and the USA\'s in
The Glass CielingThe Glass Cieling The glass ceiling has held women back from certain positions and opportunities in the workplace. Women are stereotyped as part-time, lower-grade workers with limited opportunities for training and advancement because of this glass ceiling . How have women managed their careers when confronted by this glass ceiling? It has been difficult; American women have struggled for their role in society since 1848. Women’s roles have changed significantly throughout the past centuries bec
Coca-Cola and its EvolutionCoca-Cola and its Evolution The Coca-Cola company started out as an insignificant one man business and over the last one hundred and ten years it has grown into one of the largest companies in the world. The first operator of the company was Dr. John Pemberton and the current operator is Roberto Goizueta. Without societies help, Coca-Cola could not have become over a 50 billion dollar business. Coca-Cola was invented by Dr. John Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist. He concocted the formula in a thr
Bipolar Affective DisorderBipolar Affective Disorder The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder; however, despite the abundance of people suffering from the it, we are still waiting for definite explanations for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we ar
Total Quality ManagementTotal Quality Management Total Quality Management Total Quality Management(TQM) is an organisational process that actively involves every function and every employee in satisfying customers needs, both internal and external. TQM works by continuously improving all aspect of work through structured control, improvement and planning activities that are carried out in concern with guiding ideology that focuses on Quality and Customer Satisfaction as the top priorities. There has been many arguments
TQM In An Accounting EnvironmentTQM In An Accounting Environment Chapter One: Description of the problem: All companies need effective employees in order to complete the necessary daily tasks and attain a profit. Many employers do not receive the peak level of performance from their workers due to the fact that the employees do not feel they are having an effect on the quality of service they are offering, or cannot see any tangible outcome from their efforts. This chapter describes several different aspects of the project, in
Treatments of AlcoholismTreatments of Alcoholism Treatments of Alcoholism University of ??? TREATMENTS OF ALCOHOLISM Alcoholism can destroy the life of an alcoholic and devastate the alcoholic\'s family. But it also has overwhelming consequences for society. Consider these statistics from the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence: *In 1988, alcoholism and problems related to it cost the United States an estimated $85.8 billion in mortality and reduced productivity; *Fetal alcohol syndrome, caused by a woma
If you enjoy dealing with people, the outdoors, anUPS UPS If you enjoy dealing with people, the outdoors, and being your own supervisor than a job with the UPS just might be a job for you. There are many advantages to being a UPS driver, but there are also a few disadvantages. Some of the advantages are that most freight and material movers belong to Unions. The particular unions that represent freight and material movers are International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agriculture Implement Workers of America. Unions make sure that th
Adultery In The MilitaryAdultery In The Military Adultery Debated Issue In Military In 1995 Lieutenant Kelly Flinn became the United States’ first female B-52 Bomber pilot. One year later Lt. Flinn began a relationship with a man who was legally separated from his wife with a divorce pending. Eventually Lt. Flinn fell in love with the man and the Air Force charged her with adultery. The charges against Lt. Flinn left her facing dismissal from the military and the possibility of serving up to nine-and-a-half years in pr
What is Public Relations Select 2 definitions andWhat is Public Relations Select 2 definitions and assess The Mexican Statement, agreed on by the World Assembly of Public Relations Associations in Mexico City in August 1978 (Seitel, 1992, 8), reads, Public relations practice is the art and social science of analysing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organisation leaders, and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organisation\'s and the public interest. Strengths 1. The emphasis that public rela
Why I Think Malaysia Will Be The Best Place To LivWhy I Think Malaysia Will Be The Best Place To Live In The Next by: Woo Tai Kwan (First prize winner in the STAR 25th anniversary essay competition (Category C - adults) Should a fairy godmother suddenly appear before me with a crystal ball, a magic wand and a world atlas, and give me the liberty to select the country I’d like to live in 25 years from now, without a second’s hesitation, I would point to that small nondescript, elongated peninsula straddling the equator called Malaysia. The reaso
Women's Images in Managment of Grief and A Pair ofWomen\'s Images in Managment of Grief and A Pair of Tickets Both Management of Grief and A Pair of Tickets were written by women and about women. Authors were able to portray an image of women which differs from the traditional, stereotypical literary image of feeble and delicate creatures who needed to be cared for. Women in these stories were faced with horrible tragedies, but the determining element in their experience was not so much what happened to them but how they took it. After reading
Work SatisfactionWork Satisfaction WORK SATISFACTION As the quote from the Work in America report indicates, people want to feel that their work matters, that what they do gives them some sense of fulfillment. Of course, other factors matter too, especially room for advancement and compensation, but the most important thing here is that work be meaningful. But are these needs important to the organization? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. But more and more, they are becoming significant to most organizations. While
(topic is business accounting) Accounting Evaluati(topic is business accounting) Accounting Evaluation of Ford FORD MOTOR COMPANY GROUP PROJEC ACC 505 - FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 12/01/96 TABLE OF CONTENTS DESCRIPTION PAGE INTRODUCTION................................................................................. 1 LIQUIDITY........................................................................................ 1-3 Working Capital................................................................................... 1 Current Ratio & Quick Ratio......
Cutting the National DebtCutting the National Debt It\'s time to clean up this mess. Famous last words heard from the mouths of many different politicians when talking about the national debt and the budget deficit. Our debt is currently $4.41 trillion and we have a budget deficit of around $300 billion and growing. Our government now estimates that by the year 2002 the debt will be $6.507 Trillion. While our politicians talk of balancing the budget , not one of them has proposed a feasible plan to start paying down t
Ford Motor CompanyFord Motor Company GROUP PROJECT ACC 505 - FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 12/01/96 TABLE OF CONTENTS DESCRIPTION PAGE INTRODUCTION........................................................1 LIQUIDITY...........................................................1-3 Working Capital...................................................1 Current Ratio & Quick Ratio.......................................2 Receivable Turnover & Average Days\' Sales Uncollected.............2-3 Inventory Turnover & Average Days\' Invento
Economics: The American GovernmentEconomics: The American Government Most of the problems of the United states are related to the economy. One of the major issues facing the country today is social security. The United States was one of the last major industrialized nations to establish a social security system. In 1911, Wisconsin passed the first state workers compensation law to be held constitutional. At that time, most Americans believed the government should not have to care for the aged, disabled or needy. But such attitud
A Role of Ethics and Social Responsibilities in MaA Role of Ethics and Social Responsibilities in Management. Ethics can be defined as a process of evaluating actions according to moral principal of values(A.Alhemoud). Throughout the centuries people were trying to choose between profit and moral. Perhaps, some of them obtain both, but every time it could have roused ethical issues. Those issues concern fairness, justice, rightness or wrongness; as a result it can only be resolved according to ethical standards. Setting the ethical standards fo
AustraliaAustralia INTRODUCTION Australia, island continent located southeast of Asia and forming, with the nearby island of Tasmania, the commenwealth of Australia, a self governing member of the Commenwealth of Nations. The commenwealth of Australia is made up of six states--News south Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Wester n Australia--and two territories--the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Australia, including Tasmania but excluding external terri
The Advantages and Disadvantages of IncorporatingThe Advantages and Disadvantages of Incorporating a Business In order to mention all the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating a business, first I should try to explain what a corporation is. In 1819, Chief Justice Marshall of the United States Supreme court said: A corporation is an artificial being, invisible, intangible, and existing only in contemplation of the law. In the Webster\'s College Dictionary corporation is defined as an association of individuals, created by law and ha
Burger King and Its Advertising CampaignsBurger King and Its Advertising Campaigns Burger King is a reliable burger company which has had its ups and downs. In 1974, it came out with a slogan of Have it your way and at this time it also had a 4 % market share. Burger King\'s idea was to have the customer have their burger done their way rather than a standard burger. In the early 80\'s Burger King was trying to keep sales growing so they had to keep changing their advertising. In 1982 Battle of the burgers and Aren\'t you hungry f
Bombardier ReportBombardier Report Analysis of Bombardier: Bombardier took on its present form in 1976 when MLW-Worthington, a manufacturer of locomotives, acquired Bombardier Ltd., a manufacturer of snow tractors and snowmobiles. The company was renamed Bombardier Inc. in 1978. The company has been active ever since in the acquisitions of various aerospace and transportation companies around the world. Nature of the Business Bombardier conducts business in five main areas: transportation equipment, aerospace, d
International Business VenturesInternational Business Ventures Measuring a potential business venture has many aspects which the international manager must be aware of in order to convey the correct information back to the decision makers. Being ignorant to any of the aspects can lead to a false representation of the project, and hence an uninformed decision being passed. In order for a business to survive it must grow. For growth to be optimal, management must first be able to identify the most attractive prospective leads.
The Bubble Economy of JapanThe Bubble Economy of Japan The Economy of Japan had experience a tremendous growth since the end of the Korean war. The growth of GNP in 1967 and 1968 was above 10 % (double digit growth period) which exceed countries such as Britain, France and Germany. The economy experienced a boost is due to many reasons, such as: enlargement of industrial facilities, massive adaptation of western technology and education, lower the military expense to 1% of GNP, relation with power nation, human resources
Budget 97Budget 97 Finance Minister Paul Martin unveiled the Liberal government\'s 1997 budget recently. As most economic and political experts predicted there were very few surprises, if any. This was a cautious and predicable budget that was every bit political as it was economical. With the Liberal government set to call an election in late May or early June the Party was very reluctant to rock the boat further. This is what they have done in the 1997 budget and the subsequent reactions to the new bud
Business Process Redesign or ReengineeringBusiness Process Redesign or Reengineering Business Process Redesign (BPR) or Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed (Hammer and Champy, Reengineering). Since the BPR idea has surfaced it has been under constant ridicule by the popular press. They say it takes far too long, creates management headaches, fails 70% of the ti
Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An AcBook Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide Submitted in partial fulfillment of B.S. in Business Administration Century University, New Mexico Grade = 95% A} Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide, by Robert Murdick, R. Carl Moor and Richard H. Eckhouse, attempts to tie together the broad policies and interrelationships that exist among the many functional areas which undergraduate students typically study. The authors intend the text to supplement the typical case book a
Business PlanBusiness Plan Business Plan: Progressive Consulting What follows is a complete business plan for a hypothetical company. Please copy or save to your disk and use as an example in developing your own business plan. If you would like to read a series of articles jump to Web Marketing . For additional business aids click on The Practical Tools of Consulting 1. 0 Executive Summary Progressive Consulting will be formed as a consulting company specializing in marketing of high technology products in i
Soft Drink Industry Case StudySoft Drink Industry Case Study Table of Contents Introduction 3 Description 3 Segments 3 Caveats 4 Socio-Economic 4 Relevant Governmental or Environmental Factors, etc. 4 Economic Indicators Relevant for this Industry 4 Threat of New Entrants 5 Economies of Scale 5 Capital Requirements 6 Proprietary Product Differences 7 Absolute Cost Advantage 8 Learning Curve 8 Access to Inputs 8 Proprietary Low Cost Production 8 Brand Identity 9 Access to Distribution 9 Expected Retaliation 9 Conclusion 10 Su
Management's Achievement Claims PerspectiveManagement\'s Achievement Claims Perspective It is to no one\'s surprise that Coca-Cola is one of the world\'s largest companies. Fourteen years ago, Coca-Cola began building credibility to its investors by never over-promising, just consistently hitting long-term growth targets. In Great Britain, Coca-Cola surpassed two leading teas of consumption per capita. People said it would not be possible, but Coke did it. That is just one example. Coca-Cola\'s management believes in the theory that peop