The Grapes of Wrath

The Grapes of Wrath is a novel by John Steinbeck that exposes the desperate conditions under
which the migratory farm families of America during the 1930\'s live under. The novel tells of one
families migration west to California through the great economic depression of the 1930\'s. The
Joad family had to abandon their home and their livelihoods. They had to uproot and set adrift
because tractors were rapidly industrializing their farms. The bank took possession of their land
because the owners could not pay off their loan. The novel shows how the Joad family deals with
moving to California. How they survive the cruelty of the land owners that take advantage of them,
their poverty and willingness to work.
The Grapes of Wrath combines Steinbeck adoration of the land, his simple hatred of
corruption resulting from materialism (money) and his abiding faith in the common people to
overcome the hostile environment. The novel opens with a retaining picture of nature on rampage.
The novel shows the men and women that are unbroken by nature. The theme is one of man verses
a hostile environment. His body destroyed but his spirit is not broken. The method used to develop
the theme of the novel is through the use of symbolism. There are several uses of symbols in the
novel from the turtle at the beginning to the rain at the end. As each symbol is presented through
the novel they show examples of the good and the bad things that exist within the novel.
The opening chapter paints a vivid picture of the situation facing the drought-stricken
farmers of Oklahoma. Dust is described a covering everything, smothering the life out of anything
that wants to grow. The dust is symbolic of the erosion of the lives of the people. The dust is
synonymous with "deadness". The land is ruined ^way of life (farming) gone, people ^uprooted and
forced to leave. Secondly, the dust stands for ^profiteering banks in the background that squeeze
the life out the land by forcing the people off the land. The soil, the people (farmers) have been
drained of life and are exploited:
The last rain fell on the red and gray country of Oklahoma in early May. The weeds
became a dark green to protect themselves from the sun\'s unyielding rays....The wind grew
stronger, uprooting the weakened corn, and the air became so filled with dust that the stars were
not visible at night. (Chp 1)
As the chapter continues a turtle, which appears and reappears several times early in the
novel, can be seen to stand for survival, a driving life force in all of mankind that cannot be beaten
by nature or man. The turtle represents a hope that the trip to the west is survivable by the farmer
migrants (Joad family). The turtle further represents the migrants struggles against nature/man by
overcoming every obstacle he encounters: the red ant in his path, the truck driver who tries to run
over him, being captured in Tom Joad\'s jacket: And now a light truck approached, and as it came
near, the driver saw the turtle and swerved to hit it. The driver of the truck works for a large
company, who try to stop the migrants from going west, when the driver attempts to hit the turtle it
is another example of the big powerful guy trying to flatten or kill the little guy. Everything the
turtle encounters trys its best to stop the turtle from making its westerly journey. Steadily the turtle
advances on, ironically to the southwest, the direction of the mirgration of people. The turtle is
described as being lasting, ancient, old and wise: horny head, yellowed toenails, indestructible high
dome of a shell, humorous old eyes. (Chp 1)
The driver of the truck, red ant and Tom Joad\'s jacket are all symbolic of nature and man the try to
stop the turtle from continuing his journey westward to the promise land. The turtle helps to
develop the theme by showing its struggle against life/ comparing it with the Joad struggle against
man.
The grapes seem to symbolize both bitterness and copiousness. Grandpa the oldest
member of the Joad family talks of the grapes as symbols of plenty; all