THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATION


COSTA RICA


1. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY: AN OVERALL VISION.



Today’s world, immersed in the globalization tendencies, requires the use of new technologies that implies to increase the complexity of activities. This creates a bigger quantity of employment positions that makes workers better training indispensable in order to carry out operations with sophisticated new technology. At the same time, that tends to diminish the non-qualified or semi-qualified work positions, based mainly on the experience.


Most part of human resources appropriated educational preparation is responsibility of the educational system. This preparation must give the citizens the instruments that allow them to develop within the globalization concepts. All this framed by the constant search of the efficiency and the effectiveness with a view to better resources uses.


As the rest of the Latin American countries, Costa Rica confronts the necessity to adjust its social and economic system to face the changes that take place at international level. In that way, people must be provided with the tools that facilitate them to act successfully in their activities.


The Costa Rican society has been historically characterized by the importance given to the education, what is manifested in the early setting-up of educational centers and the importance the Ministry of Public Education has in the National budget. That allows the development of the processes of teaching learning in all the different educational levels.


The singular social and cultural development attributed to Costa Rica in the Latin American context is largely explained by its educational system. It has looked for high covering levels and quality persistently along many decades. This situation has promoted a true social mobility that has allowed fair distribution of the economic resources and the development of social attendance programs, essential for preserving the consolidated democratic system in the region.


To respond to the new requirements as much as searching for a development style, planning and conduction, educational system must respond appropriately to the problems of distribution of opportunities, efficiency and quality still not reasonably resolved.


Education system is not an isolated and static one. It influences the environment and environment determined it. It is subject to a demand that increases because of the augment on the number of inhabitants. These inhabitants not only need literacy and instruction in concrete aspects, but they mainly need a predisposition for the learning that prepare them for a constant education within a humanist setting which gives as a result conscious and solidary citizens. Citizens prepared to face the demands of the new millennium, in such a way that by means of their acting, they raise the standards of living in the Costa Rica.


Today, more than ever education should have clear policies with a prospective vision accompanied with the attainment of the goals settled down by a society that knows the challenge the world order imposes.


1.1. Main reformations and innovations introduced in the educational system at the beginning of the XXI Century.


1.1.1. Legal basis of education in Costa Rica.


The Political Constitution of the Republic of Costa Rica incorporated since 1949 a chapter about education and culture, that not only keeps the achievements of the past, but it enlarges concepts and very important guarantees.


In the Article 78 establishes:


Pre-scholar and the General Basic Education are compulsory. These and the Diversified Education in the public system are gratuitous and financed by the State. In the public education system, included superior (college) education, the public expense won\'t be inferior to six percent (6%) annual of the Gross Domestic Product, in accordance with the law... The State will facilitate the prosecution of superior studies to those who lack pecuniary resources. The award of the scholarships and the aids will be in charge of the Ministry of the field, by means of the organism that determines the law.


Also, the Political Constitution points out in the Title VII, corresponding to education:



The private initiative in education deserves stimulus, for what the teaching freedom is guaranteed, nevertheless, the private educational centers will be subject to inspection for the State.



The State is in the obligation of offering food and dress to the school indigent. The State sponsors and organizes the education of adults, to combat the