The Causes And Effects Of World War I

World War I was a military conflict from 1914 to 1918. It began as a local
European war between Austria - Hungary and Serbia on July 28, 1914. It was
transformed into a general European struggle by declaration of war against Russia on
August 1, 1914 and eventually became a global war involving 32 nations. Twenty - eight
of these nations, known as the Allies and the Associated Powers, and including Great
Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States, opposed the coalition known as the
Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria - Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria. The
immediate cause of the war between Austria - Hungary and Serbia was the assassination
of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, at Sarajevo in Bosnia by Gavrilo
Princip, a Serb nationalist. (Microsoft Encarta, 1996)
On July 28 Austria declared war against Serbia, either because it felt Russia would
not actually fight for Serbia, or because it was prepared to risk a general European conflict
in order to put an end to the Greater Serbia movement. Russia responded by partially
mobilizing against Austria. Germany warned Russia that continued mobilization would
cause war with Germany, and it made Austria agree to discuss with Russia a possible
change of the ultimatum to Serbia. Germany demanded, however, that Russia demobilize.
Russia refused to do so, and on August 1, Germany declared war on Russia. (Microsoft
Encarta, 1996)
The French began to mobilize on the same day. On August 2, German troops
invades Luxembourg and on August 3, Germany declared war on France. On August 2,
the German government informed the government of Belgium of its intention to march on
France through Belgium in order, as it claimed, to prevent an attack on Germany by
French troops marching through Belgium. The Belgian government refused to allow the
passage of German troops and called on the witnesses of the Treaty of 1839, which
guaranteed the justice of Belgium in case of a conflict in which Great Britain, France, and
Germany were involved, to observe their guarantee. Great Britain, one of the witnesses,
on August 4, sent an ultimatum to Germany demanding that Belgian justice be respected.
When Germany refused, Britain declared war on it the same day. Italy remained
uninvolved until May 23, 1915, when, to satisfy its claims against Austria, it broke with
the Triple Alliance and declared war on Austria - Hungary. In September 1914, Allied
unity was made stronger by the Pact of London, signed by France, Great Britain, and
Russia. As the war progressed, other countries, including Turkey, Japan, the U.S., and
other nations of the western hemisphere, were drawn into the conflict. Japan, which had
made an alliance with the Great Britain in 1902, declared war on Germany on August 23,
1914. The United States declared war on Germany on April 6, 1917. (Microsoft Encarta,
1996)
The outbreak of war in 1914 set in motion forces more gigantic than any previous
war had seen. Two million Germans were on the march, the greater part of them against
France, and there were another 3,000,000 trained men to back them up. France had
nearly 4,000,000 trained men at call, although they relied on only 1,000,000 active troops
in the first clash. Russia had more millions to draw upon than any, but their mobilization
process was slow, a large part of their forces were in Asia and even their great potential
strength was to a large extent canceled out by lack of munitions. (Captain Sir Basil Liddell
Hart, 1984)
The growth of these tremendous forces had been due primarily to a military gospel
of mass. Known by Clausewitz, the Prussian military philosopher, who drew his
inspiration from Napoleon’s example, the spread of this gospel had been stimulated by the
victories of the Prussian conscript armies in 1866 against Austria and in 1870 against
France. It had been assisted also by the development of railways, which enabled far larger
numbers of men to be assembled, moved and supplied than had been possible previously.
Therefore the armies of 1914 - 1918 came to be counted in their millions compared with
the hundreds of thousands of half a century earlier. (Captain Sir Basil Liddell Hart, 1984)
The essential causes of World War I were the attitude of intense nationalism that
permeated Europe throughout the 19th and into the 20th century, the political and
economic rivalry among the nations, and the establishment and maintenance in Europe
after 1871 of large armaments and of two hostile military alliances.
The French Revolution and the Napoleonic era had spread throughout