The Beatles

English rock music group formed in the late 195Os and disbanded in 1970. The members were John Lennon (1940-80) guitar and harmonica. PaulMcCartney (1942- ?), guitar and piano; George Harrison (1943?)guitar and sitar; and Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey) (1940-), drums. All were born in Liverpool, England. Influenced by such American performers as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Elvis Presley, The Beatles dominated rock music in the 1 960s, eventually disbanding when they felt their possibilities as a group were exhausted. The lyrics and music for most of their songs were written by Lennon and McCartney. The group burst on the international rock music scene in 1961. Their initial appeal derived as much from their wit, Edwardian clothes, and moplike haircuts as from their music. By 1963 they were the objects of wild adoration and were constantly followed by crowds of shrieking adolescent girls. By the late 1 960s, "Beatlernania" had abated somewhat, and The Beatles were highly regarded by a broad spectrum of music lovers. From 1963 to 1970 the group released 1 record albums that clearly document its musical development. The early recordings, such as Aket The Beatles (1964), are remarkable for their solid rhyts and excitingly rich, tight harmony. The middle albums, like Rubber Soill (1965) and Revolver (1966), evolved toward social comirnentary in their lyrics ("Eleanor Rigby, "Taxman\') and introduced such instruments as the cello, trumpet, and sitar. In 1967, Sgt. Pepper\'s LonelyHearts Club Band marked the beginning of The Beatles\' final period, which is characterized by electronic techniques and allusive, drug-inspired lyrics. The group acted and sang in four films: A Hard Day\'s Night (1964), Help! (1965), Magical Mystery Tour (1968), and Let It Be (1970); all of these are outstanding for their exuberance, slapstick, and satire. The Beatles also supplied voices for the full-length animated cartoon, Yellow Submarine. Then there careers went different directions and the beatles were over.