Test 2 Dev. Psych

1) Accomodation – changing the scheme as a result of come new information acquired through assimulation.

2) Assimilation – the process of using schemes to make sense of experiences.

3) Behavior Genetics – focuses on the effect of heredity on individual differences.

4) Classical Conditioning – learning that results from the association of stimuli.

5) Cognitive Theories – emphasize mental aspects of development such as logic and memory.

6) Defense Mechanisms – a way for reducing anxiety; repression, denial, or projection, (Freud)

7) Ecological Theory – explain dev. in terms of relationships between people and their environments, or contexts. (Bronfenbrenner)

8) Ego – the conscious, thinking part of personality, develops in first 2-3 yrs.

9) Equilibration – the process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to create schemes that fit the environment.

10) Ethology – emphasizes genetically determined survival behaviors that are assumed to have evolved through natural selection.

11) Extinction – the gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated nonreinforcement.

12) Id – unconscious level, contains the libido. ; basic sexual and aggressive impulses (birth) motivates person to seek pleasure and avoid pain. (Freud)

13) Information-Processing theory – use computer as a model of human thinking.

14) Learning Theories – say that dev. results from an accumulation of experiences.

15) Libido – internal drive for physical pleasure. Driving force behind all human behavior

16) Nativism – the view that humans possess unique genetic traits that will be manifested in all members of the species, regardless of differences in their environments.

17) neo-Piagetian Theories – ideas that epand on Piaget’s theory, information processing principles.

18) Observational Learning, Modeling – learning that results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for behavior.

19) Operant Conditioning – learning to repeat or stop behavior because of consequences they bring about.

20) Psychoanalytic Theories – proposing that dev. change happens because of the influence of internal drives and emotions on behavior.

21) Psychosexual Stages – Freud’s stages of personality development through which children move in a fixed sequence determined by maturation.

22) Psychosocial Stages – Erikson’s 8 stages, or crises, of personality development in which inner instincts interact with outer cultural and social demands to shape personality.

23) Punishment – anything that follows a behavior and causes it to stop.

24) Reinforcement – anything that follows a behavior and causes it be repeated.

25) Scheme – an internal cognitive structure that provides an individual with a procedure to use in a specific circumstance.

26) Shaping – the reinforcement of intermediate steps until an individual learns a complex behavior.

27) Sociobiology – the study of society using the methods and concepts of biological science.

28) Socio-Cultural Theory – asserts that complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions rather than in the child’s private exploration. (Vypotsky)

29) Superego – the portion of the personality that acts as a moral judge. ; contains the rules of society and develops near the end of early childhood, at about age 6.