Superconductors


Many important applications of superconductors are under development. Superconducting electromagnets have been used in research laboratories for years. Their advantages compared to conventional electromagnets include greater efficiency, compactness, and greater field magnitudes. Once a current is established in the coil of a superconducting electromagnet, no additional power input is required because there is no resistive energy loss. The coils can also be made more compact because there is no need to provide channels for the circulation of cooling fluids. Superconducting magnets routinely attain steady fields of the order of 10 Tesla, much larger than the maximum fields that are available with ordinary electromagnets.


Surface transport systems are gradually and cautiously treading the steps toward higher-speed service while confirming total safety and environmental stability. The Maglev system is one of the most promising candidates for future high speed transportation.


develop more high-speed trains as it seeks to head off competition from air travel and an increase in car ownership.


Link up the major cities



In addition, it is important that Japan continues to lead a field that will have numerous practical applications in the future in a world in which traditional fuel sources have been exhausted, he said.


High-speed trains gliding along with magnetic levitation look as if they should be sleek and silent. But not so, according to a new study.


Magnetically levitated (maglev) trains might cause more noise pollution than today\'s intercity trains, according to a report by Joos Vos of the Dutch research institute TNO Human Factors, Soesterberg, in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America1.


Vos played people recordings of maglev and normal trains that mimicked the sound levels in houses near railway lines. When asked how annoying they would find the sound if regularly exposed to it at home, participants rated the maglev noise as more disturbing than standard intercity trains.


Strong magnetic fields suspend maglev trains a few centimetres above their tracks; electromagnetic forces between train and track propel them. The reduced friction allows maglevs to run at about twice the speed of current intercity trains.


I have not believed in the Maglev since the start," he says. "I worry about health problems associated with the technology as well as environmental hazards.

"We must note that Maglev experiments have been under way for more than 20 years and they are still doing the research work," he says.


Research bill so far: $1.6 billion


But JR Central dismisses the suggestion that the technology is in any way dangerous.

"We have followed the World Health Organisation\'s report that says an electromagnetic force of less than 50 gals has no effect on the human body.


And at the Maglev test line, in Yamanashi Prefecture, we have experimented with a wall outside the car that shields passengers inside the car from the waves," says Habu, adding that measurements within the car put the level of gals at just 20.


Maglev suffers from wind impact sound


But perhaps the biggest impact will be on domestic flights, according to Nagoya University\'s professor Hayashi.

"I think this will hit airline firms operating on medium-range domestic routes very hard," he says.


"We\'ve already seen it in the past; when the Tokaido bullet train was first introduced 40 years ago, the Ministry of Transport stopped flights between Tokyo\'s Haneda airport and Nagoya. The same will happen again between Tokyo and Osaka.


“Our studies show that maglev offers many attractive benefits including the ability to operate in challenging terrain with steep grades and tight turns, all weather operation, low maintenance, rapid acceleration, and more. However, one of the most significant attributes of Maglev is its quiet operation that enables completely elevated guideway, eliminating the need to tunnel underground for noise abatement. For many urban alignments, this can result in very significant cost savings over conventional transportation systems


As we conduct the


feasibility study of


Maglev in the


Washington-Baltimore


region, I would like to


encourage you to


become involved in the


effort.


As the agency


responsible for bus,


Metro subway, Light Rail and MARC


commuter rail in the state of Maryland, we


conduct numerous studies to determine the


feasibility of various projects. Maglev could


have a significant social and economic


impact on our region. Citizens throughout


the region are continuing to search for ways to


reduce their travel time, improve air quality,


reduce congestion, and enhance the quality of


their lives. New technological solutions, such


as Maglev, will play a key role. The decisions


we make now will affect our region