Study Guide for Global History


May 31, 2004


1) What do you think was the most important/valuable of contribution of scholars and scientist from the Muslim world? Art and Architecture was the most important contribution towards the Muslim world. Architecture allowed the great monuments of the Muslim world to take shape. Art was forbidden because based on the idea, Allah can only create life. Since pictures were prohibited, many artists turned to calligraphy, which is an art of writing. Others made sculptures and ceramics. How they made buildings were special. For example, the Great Mosque of Damascus was built on the site of a Christian church. In many ways, the huge dome and vaulted ceiling of the mosque blends Byzantine architecture with Muslim ideas. In Syrian areas, the architecture includes feature that were very Roman, including baths using Roman heating systems.


2) What is the most important short/long terms effects on Russia of the Mongol invasion? Russia was united. Kievan Russia had been a collection of small independent principalities. Mongol rulers looked upon Russia as they unified empire. The rise of Moscow was also because of the Mongols. During the 43-year reign of Ivan III, the Russian state would become a genuine empire.


3) What ways did the Tang and the Song dynasties change Chinese society? Under Tang rulers, the empire expanded. By 668, China had extended its influence over Korea. Tang rulers further strengthened the central government of China. They expanded the network of roads and canals begun by the Sui. This pulled the empire together. By the mid-700s, the Tang Dynasty was weakening. Taxes were raised in order to maintain power, but still the government weakened. A raid by Arabs defeated the Tang Dynasty which lasted for about three centuries. The Song Dynasty was smaller and united China soon after. The Song Dynasty also lasted about three centuries. They never regain the land they lost, but power was restored to China.


4) How did the role of the church develop/change during the middle ages? There were two swords that the state held. One was for religious matters, which was the church, and the other was for political matters, which was the emperor. If each held its power as it is, the two powers could rule in harmony. But the church and the state disagreed on the boundaries of either realm, and they fought through out the middle ages. Shared beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together. The Church provided Christians with a sense of security and a religious community to which they might belong. The Church served as a religious and a social center. People worshiped together at the church. People talked with other villagers which brought the town together.


5) Discuss causes/effects of the crusades.


Causes


-In 1095 Seljuk Turks stormed Baghdad Taking Jerusalem


-they conquered all of Asian Minor


-Christian lands were burned and pillaged


-the pope called on a crusade to rescue the holy land from the Turks


-the pope promised forgiveness of the sins of the knights who died


-and also rewards for those who successfully took the cities


Effects


-after losing many troops, they reclaimed Jerusalem


-the troops sacked Constantinople and savaged a spree of loot


-they temporarily strengthened papal influence


-later crusades declined the papal prestige since they couldn’t detain the Byzantines


-they were never able to successfully take the holy lands


-feudalism was weakened greatly


-Byzantine power also decreased because of attacks by the crusades


-religious intolerance erupted with the Muslims, Jews, and Christians


-they brought a trade increase to the empire


-the crusades benefited them in the long run