Steroids

Testosterone was often referred to as the "male" hormone, because it is responsible for developing some of the male characteristics such as lowering of the voice and hair growth, and because the male body produces much more of it than the female. However, it is responsible for stimulating quite a few other processes. Steroids are a very large class of compounds which occur in all animals. The steroids used by athletes are mostly androgenic steroids: steroids which act like testosterone. The steroids used to treat inflammatory disorders (e.g. prednisolone, cortisone,beclomethasone, budesonide, dexamethasone and dozens of others) are cortico steroids and do not have anabolic effects.


Testosterone in the male is produced mainly in the testis, a small amount being produced in the adrenal. It is synthesized from cholesterol. The
regulation of its production may be simplified thus: the hypothalamus(part of
the brain) produces gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) which acts on the anterior pituitary to increase the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). LH acts on the Leydig cells in the testis, causing them to produce testosterone. FSH, together with testosterone act on the Sertoli cells in the testis to regulate the production and maturation of spermatozoa. Testosterone in turn acts on thehypothalamus and anterior pituitary to suppress the production of GnRH, FSHand LH, producing a negative-feedback mechanism which keeps everything well-regulated. The small amount produced in the adrenal (in both sexes) is regulated by secretion of adrenal corticotrophic hormone (ACTH), also secreted by the pituitary.


Testosterone, and its metabolites such as dihydrotestosterone, act in many parts of the body, producing the secondary sexual characteristics ofthen male: balding, facial and body hair, deep voice, greater muscle bulk,thicker skin, and genital maturity. At puberty it produces acne, the growth spurt and the enlargement of the penis and testes as well as causing the fusion of the epiphyses (through its conversion to estrogen), bringing growth in height to an end. It plays some role in maintaining the sexualorgans in the adult, but only a low concentration is required for this.


The normal production of testosterone in the adult male is 4 to 9mg per day. The normal plasma concentration is 22.5nmol/l, of which 97% is protein bound. Most is excreted in the urine as 17-keto steroids, but a small amount is converted to oestrogens. Various analogs of testosterone are used in medical treatment of testicular failure,hereditary angioedema, anemia, severe endometriosis and a few other conditions. Testosterone itself is given by injection. Oral preparations such as methyltestosterone, fluoxymesterone, mesterolone andstanolone are sometimes used, but they cause substantially more liverdamage than injectable or rectally administered preparations because they are absorbed from the gut and transported first to the liver (like most things taken by mouth)where they reach quite high concentrations and are extensively metabolized before circulating to the rest of the body. in
both the male and female body, such as skin, muscle and bone. Anabolic
steroids are synthetic versions of testosterone, they are steroid hormones
that are claimed to have a greater anabolic effect than virile. the testosterone molecule has in different ways been altered to lessen the androgenic effects and increase it\'s protein build-up abbility, and preferably eliminate it\'s masculine enhancing features.

Unfortunately this has not been completely successful, so there are a lot of different side effects with any anabolic steroid. Steroids was developed in the 1940s in Germany and used experimentally on their troops during World War II, the drugs ability to stimulate tissue growth and protein synthesis lead them to believe that the drug might be beneficial to treat burn victims and towards other war accidents. The drug was never such a big
success, because other drugs with fewer side effects were discovered, and the legal use of steroids still seems to be declining.Steroids are used for treating anaemia, because of it\'s abbility to increase the production of red blood corpuscles (red blood cells). They are also used for treatment of leukemi, cancer mammae, and at times steroids are also used for general strengthening therapy. Steroids have also been tried in combination with other drugs as a means of helping AIDS pasients.It\'s no secret that athletes often use steroids to stay at the top, unfortunately it seems as if it is not possible to dominate in some sports without the aid of drugs