Stephen Lantieri
Hst 231
Prof. Powers
February 15, 2017

The Earth Moves

People in this time mainly used the Bible and earthly elements to refute the ideas that is about to be explained. I believe that the Sun is motionless in the center of the revolution of many celestial orbs, and the Earth rotates on its axis to revolve around the Sun. This view not only prove that Aristotle is wrong, it also disapproved the bible because the Holy Scriptures state that the Earth is at the center, not the Sun. As the contents of the Bible were taken literally, they think we preach, through writing of Galileo and Copernicus, that the Bible was wrong. However, the Lincean faction and these philosophers main goal bring out the truth. This can't be done if people don't consider our observations. The Earth moves in two ways, it rotates every 24 hours, and it orbits around the Sun every 365 days. The Sun does not move, but it is in the center of the solar system.
Firstly, the Copernican model of the solar system is correct. The Copernicus shows that the planets revolve around the Sun. The size of the orbits matter in this model. In Copernicus's explanation of retrograde motion, he tells us that Mars moves slower than the Earth in its orbit. If the celestial world is rotating around the Earth, how come Mars has this retrograde motion that makes it move backwards against the stars? This happens because the Earth's orbit is smaller than Mars orbit which causes the Earth to move faster than Mars. Aristotle said the heavens are perfect and unchanging so how do you explain Mars retrograde motion? Maybe the Earth is orbiting faster than Mars, so Mars appears to be moving backward compared to all the stars in the sky. Also if Mars was rotating around the Earth it should have a consistent distance away from the Earth. However, the retrograde motion proves that Mars orbit can't be centered on the Earth. It doesn't make sense that a planet will randomly jump to a different orbit.
Following another theory of mine, how come certain stars are visible in a season and others are not? The Earth orbits around the Sun, and the vision of these stars are blocked because the Sun is in the way. If the stars rotated with the Earth, wouldn't you be able to see the same stars every night? The moon is rotating around the Earth right, if Jupiter has moons rotating around it, what makes us special that we are at the center of the universe? We could be just like Jupiter. The inquisition says that our discoveries are false, but didn't god say "let there be light", why would the Earth not be rotating around the life-force he bestowed on to us?
In another observation, the Aristotelian model of Venus is wrong. Venus never appears to be far away from the Sun even though in the model at one point Venus is supposed to be on the opposite side away from the Sun, also the Aristotelian model can't explain why Venus jumps into different orbits. Aristotle's predictions of the phases of Venus seem to be flawed as well. In Aristotle's model he seems predict the phases to be either crescent or gibbous depending on the distance it is from the Sun. However, the phases seen in the telescope constantly provides a small gibbous, first quarter, and a large crescent. This proof strongly upheavals Copernican's model of Venus because his phases of Venus is the same as the ones observed. His angles were spot on to the phases he has written down on his model. How can Aristotle's model explain these observations? If he was wrong with this, he can be wrong about numerous things. In the Copernican model, the rotation of Venus is explained better with more logic. He provided angles that where precise to the phases observed, which explains all observations made on Venus. That the small gibbous appears small because Venus is on its far end of the orbit around the Sun. Aristotle shows the gibbous to be on the opposite side of the Sun, which is wrong because