Stephen Bantu Biko

Stephen Biko is known internationally as the founder of the South
African Students\' Organization (SASO), and a leading force in the South Africa
Black Consciousness movement. He fought against the separation between black
and whites, called apartheid (the Afrikaans term for separateness). His
childhood experiences and character, lead him to became a powerful leader.
Steve Biko was born on December 18, 1946, in King William\'s Town, South
Africa. He father was a clerk and his mother was a housemaid. Following the
Sharpeville massacre in 1960, Biko was just 17 years old when he became a
political activist. He started to become active when he got expelled from
Lovedale High School and his brother was arrested in a nationwide police
crackdown on political activists. He ended up graduating in 1966 at a boarding
school in Natal named St. Francis College.
By then, his mind and character were those of a leader. He had a quick
brain with huge mental force and ideas. He had the gift to cut through to the
core of a problem and find the best solution. "His mind was a tool to chisel
out sense and truth and order" (Woods 78). Biko was thoughtful, sensitive and
had a good sense of humor. He was motivated by the search for good and truth.
At the University of Natal Medicine in 1968, he became involved in the
multiracial National Union of South African Students. He was known by peers and
adults as a student leader This organization fought for black rights, except he
claimed that, "the white [were] doing all the talking and the blacks listening"
(Biko 210). Biko wanted the blacks to have as much say and participation as the
whites, so in 1968 he became the co-founder and first president of he South
African Students\' Organization (SASO). This was an all-black organization,
which aim was to raise self respect and reliance to all blacks. He said, "Black
liberation starts with psychological self reliance. This can only be initiated
in isolation from allies whose good intentions are an obstacle to such self-
realization" (Woods 63). This organization helped the foundation of another
movement and convention, known as the South African Students\' Movement, and the
Black Peoples\' Convention (BPC). This movement also became known as the Black
Consciousness Movement. The movements he founded were headed towards students,
because they were the ones that might change their minds, unlike the older
people, who have already made up their minds. He published Black Review, which
was a political journal for the black community. These movements and
publications raised so much controversy that the black man is as worthy as any
other person, that large numbers of people on school campuses and their
community took part in protest, marches, and strikes against the government.
This lead to banning of all SASO and BPC members in February 1973. The banning
was when members were put on close watch by the police, restricting their
associations, locations, movements, and public statements. Biko was restricted
to the King William Town area. After the banning took place, Biko secretly
organization what he called the Zimele Trust Fund in 1975 to help political
prisoners and their families. That year and the next he was arrested repeatedly
without a charge or trial. In 1976, he played a lead role in a trail which
involved nine blacks prosecuted from "Alleged Subversion by Intent," which means
their thought and ideas were put on trial. Like Nelson Mandela, who was a
generation before, he used the trial in the courtroom as a platform for the
articulation of his philosophies and of black grievance. It turned out that the
nine blacks were convicted and sentenced to prison for a minimum of five years.
Black anger against white rule was now terrorism against the state and fair game
for police intervention. In August 18, 1977 he and another fellow activist were
arrested as security threats at a Security Police roadblock. They were put into
jail at Port Elizabeth. For the next 24 days after his arrest, he was beaten
and tortured. From this torturing, he suffered permanent brain damage, from
blows to the head. He was then driven, while unconscious, 740 miles to a prison
in Pretoria on September 11. He later died the next day at an age of 30. An
autopsy showed that he died of untreated head injuries, but the police denied
all of this. The death was not blamed on anyone.
The movie Trading Places, with Eddie Murphy, demonstrates Stephen Biko\'s
theory that a black man can do just as good as a white man, he just needs