SIGMUND FREUD

THE FATHER OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and died in 1939. He was a successful psysiologist, medical doctor, and psychologist. He was recognized as one of the most influential and respected thinkers of the twentieth century. He originally worked in close association with Joseph Bruer, and created the theory of psychology. He refined teh concept of the unconscious, of infatile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind\'s structure, all as a part of a dramaticallynew conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development of psychoanalysis as it exists today, it can in almost all fundamental respects be traced directly back to Freud\'s original work. Further, Freud\'s innowative treatment of human actions, dreams and indeed of cultural artefacts as invariably possessing implicit symbolic significance has proven to be extordinarily fecund, and has had massive implications for a wide variety of fields, including anthropology, semiotics, and artistic creativity and appreciation in addition of psychology. However, Freud\'s most important and frequently re-interated claim, that with psychoanalysis he had inventeed a new science of the mind, remains the subject of much critical debate and controversy.

Life
Freud was born in Frieberg, Moravia in 1856, but when he was four years old his family moved to Vienna, where Freud was to live and work until the last year of his life. In 1937 the Nazis annexed Austria, and Freud who was jewish, was allowed to leave for England. For these reasons, it was above all with teh city of Vienna that Freud\'s name was destined to be deeply associated for posterity, founding as he did what was to become known as the first Viennese school of psychoanalysis from which, it is fair to say, psychoanalysis as a movement and all about subsequent developments in this field flowed. The scope of Freud\'s interests, and of his professional training was very broad. He always considered himself first and foremost a scientist, endeavouring to extend the compass of human knowledge, and to this end (rather than to the practice of medicine) he enrolled at the medical school at the Universtity of Vienna in 1873. He concentrated initially on biology, doing research in physiology for six years under the great German scientist Ernst Brucke, who was director of the Physiology Laboratory at the University, thereafter specialising in nerology. He recieved his medical degree in 1881, and having become engaged to be married in 1882, he rather reluctantly took up more secure and financially rewarding work as a doctor at Vienna General Hospital. Shortly after his marriage in 1886- which was extremely happy, and gave Freud set up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders, which gave him much of the clinical material on which he based his theories and his pioneering techniques.
In 1885-86 Freud spent the greater part of a year in Paris, where he was deeply impressed by the work of the French neurologist Jean Charcot, who was at the time using hypnotism to treat hysteria and other abnormal mental conditions. When he returned to Vienna, Freud experrimented with hypnosis, but found that its beneficial effects did not last. At this point he decided to adopt instead a method suggested by the work of an older Viennese colleague and friend, Josef Breur, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk to uninhibitedly about the earliest occurences of the symptoms, the latter sometimes gradually abated. Working with Breur, Freud formulated and developed the idea that many neuroses (phobias, hysterical paralyses and pains, some forms of paranoia, etc.) had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences which had occured in the past life of the patien t but which were now forgotten, hidden from consciousnessm; the treatment was to enable the patient to recall the experience to consciousness, to confront it in a deep way both intellectually and emotionally, and in thus discharging it, to remove the underlying psychological causes of the neurotic symptoms. This technique, and the theory from which it is derived, was given its classical expression in Studies in Hysteria, jointly published by Freud and Breuer in 1895.
Shortly thereafter, however, Breuer, Found that he could not agree with what he regarded as the excessive emphasis which Freud placed upon the sexual origins and content of