Safety handling methods of containers
Module: Marine cargo operation
Topic: Safety handling methods of containers




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CONTENTS PAGE





Acknowledgements 3 Introduction 4



General safety aspects 4




Containerization 5



Movement damage 5


Ventilation 6


Above deck carriage of containers 7


Lifting containers 7


Refrigerated cellular container carriage 8


I.S.O 8


Hazards with containers 8


Stuffing and stripping 9


Conclusion 10


Bibliography 11



















AKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my colleagues and friends in my class, who helped me to complete this project, not only by providing me information and data, but also by exchanging views on this subject.


The topic of present essay is to analyze one of the most or the most important issue that we should bear in mind when we load and stow commodities. Particularly in this essay we are going to examine, the safety handling methods of containers into general.


GENERAL SAFETY ASPECTS








The overriding consideration overall is for the safety of ship and crew. This implies that the cargo is placed with due regard to the stability characteristics of the ship and such a way as to avoid excessive bending or shearing stresses in the loaded condition, bearing in mind the intended voyage and likely weather to be experienced.


Furthermore, the total ‘weight loaded’ must not exceed that which is permitted to meet the appropriate load line indications. Pre-planning calculations will be made with this in mind.


The distribution of cargo must always leave adequate access to crew and navigation spaces, nor must it prevent the correct closure of hatchways and hatches or accommodation doors through which water could enter in adverse weather.


Damage to cargo can arise from a considerable number of causes some less obvious than others and precautionary measures need to be applied over broad parameters. Particular preventative measures are necessary with crushing possibilities in compartments where fragile consignments are stowed with heavier loads; with taint from odorous goods, liquids and incorrect mixing of different consignments giving off moisture affect.


CONTAINERAZATION








Containerization implies the practice of grouping loads of cargo together. The creation of this change in method is aimed at cargo being handled physically as little as possible and by mechanical means as much as possible, both in the ship and on shore. This is lessening the need for the conventional derrick, but promoting ship crane age, as already mentioned. It is also promoting greater use of conveyor systems.


MOVEMENT DAMAGE





The conventional systems of cargo handling frequently resulted in damage from handling, dropping, impact, crushing and slinging and also from broken stowage. In the container, fewer units are being stowed at one time and by more sophisticated methods, while the number of handling procedures are less, reducing all the above-mentioned damage possibilities.


On the other hand solidarity of stowage within the container is essential by conventional dunnaging or cushioning material since not only must damage to the goods be avoided but also to the container itself. Indeed, with a standard-size container—20 ft x 8 ft x 8 ft or indeed with those of 40 ft, goods should be selected by packaging size to have a solid relationship to the interior volume of the container so that movement within cannot take place. In some container fittings are available from which lashings can be fixed and for relatively heavy cargo units this is desirable.


Crushing can be avoided by height separation in quasi-decking fashion, using material such as hardboard. It isn’t unusual to find container operators using air-filled dunnage


bags or blocks of expanded polystyrene for separation and blocking purposes.


It is also important that the distribution of cargo within the container is balanced. That is to say that the center of gravity of the container is indeed central. Without this precaution, and with unsuitable lifting, the container may ‘slew’ with probable movement of cargo within it.


From the ship officer point of view the more general use of containers will prevent the attentions referred to earlier, since the unit will arrive at the ship sealed and ready for loading. There will, however, be occasions where the container is stowed, or ‘stuffed’, as is the term applied, at the berth in which case the officer must apply the attentions necessary. Irrespective of system, however, the lifting precautions do apply.


VENTILATION


While climatic conditions are paramount in ventilation