Review for Jazz History Midterm exam- October 2003

2 Forms of Jazz

1.) 12 Bar Blues= number of choruses

2.) 32 Bar AABA song four =32

3.) Ways Jazz is unique

I. Jazz Sound & Interpretation

II. Improvisation

III. Swing feel

a.) constant tempo

b.) cohesive group sound

c.) rhythmic lilt

d.) spirit

Jazz is the blending of African & European culture

1.) Field hollers- blending tones "Ol Hannah"- Doc Reese

2.) Work sons- emphasis on rhythm & meter- "Julina Johnson" -Lead Belly

3.) Spiritual- " Dry Bones"- gospel

Lead Belly- sings country


1.) Country/Rural- Lead Belly

2.) City/ Urban- Ma Rainey/ Bessie Smith 1894-1937

St. Louis Blues- 1925 "Lost your head blues" -1926


Scott Jophin 1868-1917 "Maple Leaf Rag"

1.) Military march and Afro-American banjo music

2.) Happy mood

3.) Lacked jazz swing feel

4.) Piece had themes

5.) Solo piano style highly syncopated

Early Dixieland Band (Original Dixieland Jazz Band "Dixie Jazz Band" 1917)

Trumpet/cornet- melody

Clarinet-played harmony above melody & created momentum

Trombone- important base notes

Banjo- rhythm harmony

Tuba- rhythm harmony


Louis Armstrong "Satcho"

Plays trumpet

1.) 1st great jazz soloist

2.) Swing feel

3.) High Register

4.) Scat singing

5.) Tremendous warmth & ability to communication

(Solo (cordenza) West end Blues)

2 recording groups

"Hot five" "Hot Seven"

West End Blues

Strutting with some barbecue

Hello Dolly

Heebie Jeebees

Ain\'t Mishihaing ?

Chicago vs. New Orleans

1.) String bass replaced the tuba

2.) Guitar replaced the banjo

3.) More elaborate introduction & ending

4.) Tenor sax was added

5.) Individual solos became more important

6.) Tension & drive

Fletcher Henderson “The Stampede" - 1897-1952

Band leader, piano, composition arranger

1.) Use of riffs (short melodies phrases/ call and response)

2.) Writing for sections (Saxes & bass)

3.) Writing for big band keeping feels of improvisation

3 types

- Sweet band - Sammy Kaye, Greg Lombardo

- Swing band

- Novelty- Spike Jones


- Large dance bands that played written arrangements with some improvisation


Tommy Dorsey- I\'m getting Sentimental over You

Mood for listening and dancing (trombone)


Frank Sinatra & Pied Pipers- I\'ll never smile again


Benny Goodman- Let\'s dance

Drive intensity (clarinet)

Glenn Miller-Moonlight Serenades

Precision and clarinet lead (trombone)

Duke Ellington- Take the A train

New sounds and tone colors extended works (piano)

Count Bassie- One O\'clock Jumps

Relaxed ensemble great dynamics longer solos

Tenor Sax- Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young (alto), Johnny Hodges, Benny Carter

Ella Fitzgerald 1918-1996

1.) Scat singing

2.) Clarity of tone

3.) Flexibility of range

4.) Sense of rhythm and pitch

1.) A tisket and tasket -1937 (1st big hit)

2.) Mack the knife 1960

Billie Holiday 1915-1959 (Lady Day)

1.) Original and fresh

2.) Jazz style

3.) Subtle bittersweet tone quality

4.) Sincerity of emotion

1.) God Bless the Children

2.) Strange fruit

Duke Ellington 1894-1974

Piano/ leader/ arranger composer

3 periods of writing

1927 Jungle/ East St. Louis Toddle-oo (Black and tan fantasy)

1930 Mood Indigo/ "Solitude" "Mood Indigo"

1940 extended works Black, Brown, and Beige Nut cracker suite/ Far East suite/ Deep South suite

1.) 1st band to make affective of form in arrangement

2.) Use of brass and mutes for colors effects\'

3.) Use of Latin rhythms "caravan"

4.) Ingenious variations of blues

5.) 1st band to uses voice wordless musical, instrument Creole love call

6.) 1st to write a composition for a specific soloist concerta for cootie

7.) Sacred concerts