Reasons On Why Napoleon Had Lost The Campaign Of 1812

Napoleon\'s Reasons for Defeat

The Campaign of 1812 should have been a another crusade for Napoleon,
but he now faced 2 new policies that he had never faced before, the severe Russian
winter and the notorious scorched-earth policy. On June 23, 1812 Napoleon\'s
Grande Armee, over 500,000 men strong, poured over the Russian border. An
equal amount of Russian forces awaited them. The result of the campaign was a
surprise. Two authors, General carl von Clausewitz and Brett James, show
similarities in reasons why Napoleon had lost this campaign to Russia.



Napoleon believed that after a few quick victorious battles, he could
convince Alexander to return to the Continental System. He also decided that if he
occupied Moscow, the Russian government would crumple and ask for peace.

" A single blow delivered at the heart of the Russian Empire, at Moscow the Great,
at Moscow the Holy, will instantly put this whole blind, apathetic mass at my
mercy." pg 6, 1812 Napoleon\'s Defeat in Russia

This was his belief he expressed in March 1812. However, when Napoleon
eventually took over Moscow, the Tsar still did not surrender. Napoleon, sent a
message to the Tsar, demanding a immediate surrender. However, the Tsar could
not surrender because if he did, he would be assassinated by the nobles.
Clausewitz replies by saying, " Napoleon was unable to grasp the fact that
Alexander would not, could not negotiate. The Tsar knew well that he would be

disposed and assassinated if he tried so." pg 256, The Campaign of 1812 in
Russia

General Clausewitz said, "Napoleon believed if he defeated the Russian Army and
occupied Moscow, the Russian leadership will fall apart and the government
would call for peace." pg 253, The Campaign of 1812 in Russia

Brett James also agreed that Napoleon\'s occupation had no result. " The
occupation of Napoleon in Moscow did not have a effect on the government." pg
13, 1812 Napoleon\'s Defeat in Russia


With his battle plan set, Napoleon prepared his troops for the attack on
Russia. But, Napoleon did not consider the fierce Russian winter which awaited
him. According to Ludwig Wilhelm Gottlob Schlosser, a onlooker, he described
the army by saying,

" The French, down to the lowliest drummer were very fastidious. These poor
French devils were not satisfied with less than soup, meat and vegetables, roast,
and salad for their midday meal, and there was no sign of their famous frugality.
They were completely devoid of the coming winter." pg 13, 1812 Napoleon\'s
Defeat in Russia

Napoleon was even warned by General Rapp about the extremities of the
oncoming winter in Russia.




" The natives say we shall have a severe winter," Napoleon retorted scornfully, "
Bah! You and your natives! We shall see how fine it is." pg 147, 1812
Napoleon\'s Defeat in Russia

Napoleon should have heeded Rapp\'s words. As the Grand Armee marched toward
Moscow, many horses and men were lost in the freezing snow, and for those who
remained, their morale and effectiveness was at the nadir.

General Clausewitz states his point by saying, " With more precaution and better
regulations as to subsistence, with more careful consideration of his marches,
which would have prevented the unnecessary and enormous accumulation of
masses on one and the same road, he would have preserved his army in a more
effective condition." pg 255, The Campaign of 1812 in Russia

Brett James also shared the same opinion, " Napoleon appeared to have made no
effort to discover the facts in Russia, or prepare his troops for it." pg 140, 1812
Napoleon\'s Defeat in Russia


As Napoleon and his army was making their way to Moscow, they
encountered typhus, colds, and dysentery. Even the mighty Napoleon had caught
a mild case of the flu. However, his soldiers had received the brunt of the attack.





Captain Thomas- Joesph Aubry relives this ordeal, " After this the typhus made
appalling inroads in our ranks. We were fourty-three officers in our ward. All of
them died, one after the other, and delirious from this dreadful disease, most of
them singing, some in Latin, others in German, others again in Italian - and singing
psalms, canticles, or the mass." pg 210, 1812 Napoleon\'s Defeat in Russia

General Clausewitz wrote, " The bad water and the air-borne insects caused
dysentery, typhus, and diarrhea." pg 136, The Campaign of 1812 in Russia

Brett James also wrote, " Bad water, bad air, and bad sanitation all contributed to
the vile diseases." pg 213 1812, Napoleon\'s defeat in Russia

Napoleon had