This essay Psychosocial Development Essay has a total of 769 words and 5 pages.
Psychosocial Development Essay
February 6, 2004
According to Erik Erikson, there are eight stages of psychosocial development. The first four are Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, and Industry vs. Inferiority. It is Erikson’s belief that individuals progress through these stages sequentially throughout one’s lifetime. Each stage is characterized by a conflict, which must be worked through in order for healthy development to occur. Failure to achieve resolution impedes later development, but can be corrected in another stage.
The first stage, Trust vs. Mistrust, happens at birth to one year old. Babies learn to trust or mistrust their caregivers, depending on the degree and regularity of care, love, and affection offered. This may or may not be true. My middle daughter tended to gravitate towards her father, regardless of the fact that he was not her primary caregiver. She just liked him better than me!
The second stage, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, occurs during the ages of one to three years old. At this stage children begin to want to do things for themselves. Overprotective parents may thwart their child’s efforts at independence, thus teaching the child shame and doubt about their efforts to exert their own will. Despite the fact that this line of thought is convincing, I have a few doubts about it. Although all three of my daughters’ favorite word was “NO”, they applied the word to every situation, even if they wanted the item in question. If the user of “NO” was me, some accept it, while some did not.
The third stage, Initiative vs. Guilt, happens from three to six years old. At this stage, children begin to initiate activities, plan and undertake tasks, and enjoys their developing motor skills . If not allowed to pursue these skills, the child may develop a sense of guilt about their activities. This one I agree with. When my daughters would develop a new skill, such as setting the table, and were corrected on how the table should be set, they tended to flatly refuse to do it. They would cry that they were going to do it wrong. It became more a matter of whether or not they could do it, rather than how they did it.
The fourth stage, Industry vs. Inferiority, takes place at six years old to puberty. Children begin to feel pride in their accomplishments in this stage. They may feel they are inferior if not encouraged. I also agree with this opinion. At this age my daughters entered school. As they learned, they began to compare themselves to other children in their class, feeling inferior if others learned a skill quicker than they did . For example, my oldest daughter excels at the violin, but considers herself stupid because algebra eludes her.
There are many differing theories about how children develop language skills. The Learning Theory, which emphasizes language being learned through reinforcement, and the Nativist Position, which stresses the point that language and grammar are learned easily and naturally in stages, are two of these opposing theories.
Scholars that believe the Learning Theory, maintain that language is acquired in much the same way that other behaviors are learned. Through reinforcement and imitation, parents are able to shape the way their children learn. Parents selectively criticize incorrect words, while reinforcing the correct ones with praise, approval, and attention. Because children tend to learn by example, this particular approach is useful in teaching the child what is acceptable to say, and what is not. On the other hand, imitation can not account for certain patterns of speech, such as telegraphic speech, or systematic errors, such as overregulation. Parents also tend to reward children for the content of what they say, rather than correct grammar.
Scholars who subscribe to the Nativist Position, believe that language develops in stages that occur in a fixed order, at approximately the same time in most normal children. Babies have an instinctive ability to recognize and distinguish phonemes that are in any language.
The Nativist position is better able to account for the fact that children throughout the world go through the same language learning stages at approximately same age, as well as the mistakes that all children seem to make as they learn.
Topics Related to Psychosocial Development Essay
Psychology, Developmental psychology, Eriksons stages of psychosocial development, Erik Erikson, Applied linguistics, Language acquisition, Language development, Imitation, Shame, Psychodynamic models of emotional and behavioral disorders
Essays Related to Psychosocial Development Essay
Executive Women: Substance Plus StyleExecutive Women: Substance Plus Style PSYC 4310 Executive Women: Substance Plus Style The article Executive Women: Substance Plus Style deals with the issue of whether the abilities and attitudes of male managers are different from those of female managers and that these differences have been used to keep women out of managerial positions. Furthermore, it suggests that it has now become fashionable to state that these differences are favorable and complement the business environment. Lastl
Materialism and Happiness in AmericaMaterialism and Happiness in America MATERIALISM AND HAPPINESS IN AMERICA: THE GATSBY ERA AND TODAY Materialism: attention to or emphasis on material objects, needs or considerations, with a disinterest in or rejection of spiritual values. The acquisition of material has been equated with happiness in this country. This is true today, and it was true during the 1920\'s, the setting of F. Scott Fitzgerald\'s The Great Gatsby. That the majority of Americans believe that wealth and happiness are th
Meditation- An in-depth look at the 5,000 year oldMeditation- An in-depth look at the 5,000 year old remedy for The Lance In-Depth Feature- Meditation by Courtney Martin In this modern day and age, the negative effects of stress are unavoidable. People have tried various methods to help cope with stress, everything from exercise and diet to alternative methods like biofeedback. However, the most effective method to deal with stress is not one of these modern methods but rather a 5,000 year-old idea: Meditation. Meditation not only helps reduce
Introduction to Human ServicesIntroduction to Human Services Jeffrey, A Human Services Professional is someone who is a facilitator for someone who is not able or not yet able to deal with issues in a healthy way. I am taking classes so that I can learn how to best help empower people change their situation by believing in themselves. I believe that people have the answers within themselves, but may need help getting in touch with their spiritual or intuitive self. As human services providers, we hopefully strive to model h
Mending WallMending Wall “Mending Wall” by Robert Frost is a poem in which the characteristics of vocabulary, rhythm and other aspects of poetic technique combine in a fashion that articulates, in detail, the experience and the opposing convictions that the poem describes and discusses. The ordinariness of the rural activity is presented in specific description, and as so often is found in Frost’s poems, the unprepossessing undertaking has much larger implications. Yet his consideration of these does not di
Mind body weeknessmind body weekness The Mind, Music, and Behavior abstract The main purpose of the paper is to investigate and present the relationship between the mind, music, and human behavior. For this purpose, research is presented on previous works and studies that link music with the mind. Based on this research, music increases neurotransmitter levels. Soft or mellow music has a tendency to promote tranquillity, while music with tempo sometimes distracts. Human memories can be cued by music, and music ca
Nathaniel Hawthorne Weaves Dreams Into Much of HisNathaniel Hawthorne Weaves Dreams Into Much of His 19th Century Prose ENG 1015, Sec. 331 March 19, 1997 Nathaniel Hawthorne Weaves Dreams into Reality in Much of His 19th Century Prose Nathaniel Hawthorne, a master of American fiction, often utilizes dreams within the annals of his writings to penetrate, explore and express his perceptions of the complex moral and spiritual conflicts that plague mankind. His clever, yet crucial purpose for using dreams is to represent, through symbolism, the hum
Nihilism in Turgenov's Fathers and SonsNihilism in Turgenov\'s Fathers and Sons Turgenov$BCT(J Fathers and Sons has several characters who hold strong views of the world. Pavel believes that Russia needs structure from such things as institution, religion, and class hierarchy. Madame Odintsov views the world as simple so long as she keeps it systematic and free from interference. This essay will focus on perhaps the most interesting and complex character in Fathers and Sons: Bazarov. Vladimir Nabakov writes that Turgenov takes his
OBE- Restructuring of the American SocietyOBE- Restructuring of the American Society OBE: The Restructuring Of American Society. There has been a concern for some time throughout America regarding the quality of public education. Students are graduating from highschool without adequate knowledge of the three R\'s. Universities are recruiting a multitude of incompetent pseudo-scholars. Employers don\'t understand why the new generation of workers do not possess the basic skills to perform the job. It would appear that American students a
Ordinary People by Judith GuestOrdinary People by Judith Guest dysfunctional family who relate to one another through a series of extensive defense mechanisms, i.e. an unconscious process whereby reality is distorted to reduce or prevent anxiety. The book opens with seventeen year old Conrad, son of upper middle-class Beth and Calvin Jarrett, home after eight months in a psychiatric hospital, there because he had attempted suicide by slashing his wrists. His mother is a meticulously orderly person who, Jared, through projecti
Othello's Impact On Today's SocietyOthello\'s Impact On Today\'s Society Othello\'s Impact on Today\'s Society In the late 1990\'s playwright, William Shakespeare\'s, Othello was successfully produced in the United States and around the world. One might wonder why this classical tragedy gained so much popularity with today\'s society. In my own opinion, this play was successful due to the themes and issues addressed. Societies still deal with these situations today. These themes and issues are a part of our lives and people can r
Political CommunicationPolitical Communication Politics and the media have long been intimately involved with each other, with media strongly setting an agenda in which politics is very important. (Harris 1999,p.167) “Our perceived reality of the real world is largely a product of the media.” (Harris 1999,p.186) It is not known which influences more but there are definitely two sides to the story. Many studies have been done to decide but each comes out with different answers. Many say that the media has more of an im
Anxiety And Depression In Afro-AmericansAnxiety And Depression In Afro-Americans A major cause of mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety in individuals is stress. Defined stress is an internal response caused by the application of a stressor or anything that requires coping behaviour. For example the pressure of a job, supporting a family or getting an education are stressors that can result in depression and anxiety. Individuals and groups that have numerous resources or other coping mechanisms are better suited for c
Reuven Malter's Development In The ChosenReuven Malter\'s Development In The Chosen Malter\'s Development in The Chosen One of the most emotional scenes from Chaim Potok’s The Chosen is when Reuven goes with Danny Saunders to talk to his father. Danny has a great mind and wants to use it to study psychology, not become a Hasidic tzaddik. The two go into Reb Saunders’ study to explain to him what is going to happen, and before Danny can bring it up, his father does. Reb Saunders explains to the two friends that he already known that Reu
Bleeding Ireland and Black AmericaBleeding Ireland and Black America Fall Road is deserted. Only a few dirt-caked, barefoot, Irishmen can be seen shivering in the adjacent park. We walk past the Catholic neighborhoods knowing, at any moment, buildings might explode and automatic weapon fire could lacerate the air on every side of us. Belfast is charming, apart from the harsh reality of guerrilla warfare and terrorism being common occurrences. For the first time, throughout my three month tour of seventeen different European coun
Stephen King and an anlysis of his workStephen King and an anlysis of his work The main quality of literature in our society is its ability to entertain the masses. Some authors use horror and mystery to keep their reader’s attention. Stephen King is the epitome of horror writers. In writing horror mystery novels, Stephen King utilizes small towns, a unique writing style, and people\'s inherent fears to scare the pants off his readers. Fear is the basis for nearly all horror fiction, especially in Stephen King\'s novels. Everybody g
Swift's Real ArgumentSwift\'s Real Argument God only knows from whence came Freud\'s theory of penis envy, but one of his more tame theories, that of reverse psychology, may have its roots in the satire of the late Jonathan Swift. I do not mean to assert that Swift employed or was at all familiar with that style of persuasion, but his style is certainly comparable. Reverse psychology (as I chose to define it for this paper) means taking arguments that affirm an issue to such a degree that they seem absurd, and thu
Swift's Real ArgumentSwift\'s Real Argument Swift\'s Real Argument God only knows from whence came Freud\'s theory of penis envy, but one of his more tame theories, that of reverse psychology, may have its roots in the satire of the late Jonathan Swift. I do not mean to assert that Swift employed or was at all familiar with that style of persuasion, but his style is certainly comparable. Reverse psychology (as I chose to define it for this paper) means taking arguments that affirm an issue to such a degree that th
Teenage wastelandteenage wasteland The Teenage Wasteland, why was it so good? Growing up in the recent generations is very challenging. Children at such young ages, even younger than teens have been faced with such perilous decisions. It is especially hard for teenagers to find acceptance at this point in their lives. Here is an instance that is so common in this day and age, yet this particular case is only fiction. A teenage boy named Donny has been going through a few changes in his appearance. His parents, M
Television ViolenceTelevision Violence Television Violence Television violence is a negative message of reality to the children who see it. There is an excessive amount of violence being watched in millions of people’s homes every day, and this contributes to the growing amount of violent crimes that are being committed in our communities. This cycle of more and more sex and violence being portrayed as reality on television will not stop until something is done. Not one parent that I know wants his or her children
The Advancement Of Science In Brave New WorldThe Advancement Of Science In Brave New World Christy Campbell Mrs. Doig Eng OAC 2 16 May, 1996 The Advancement Of Science In Brave New World When thinking of progress, most people think of advances in the scientific fields, believing that most discoveries and technologies are beneficial to society. Are these advances as beneficial as most people think? In the novel Brave New World, the author Aldous Huxley, warns readers that scientific advances can be a threat to society. This is particularly
The development of Rousseau and Raskolnikov in theThe development of Rousseau and Raskolnikov in the novels \'Th In every society, it is important for individuals to adhere to a set of principles in order to maintain order. In Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment and Camus’ The Outsider , however, both protagonists ignored the values of their society. Raskolnikov and Meursault felt their own beliefs were significant, and through their actions they were able to express them. As a result, one man was judged as a social deviant, while the other man
The Diary of DusselThe Diary of Dussel Dussel Thursday, 12 November, 1942 Dear Journal, Blasted fools!!! They want me to go into hiding with them without closing up my business first! I\'m not one to leave loose ends!! Give me time people! I wish I didn\'t even have to leave. Why didn\'t I go with my wife and son? We probably could have managed it somehow? Now I\'m forced to hide like a frightened child! Why, If I had an army, no one would know the name Hitler. While I was walking today I thought I was being fol
The Downfall of Young Goodman BrownThe Downfall of Young Goodman Brown The Downfall of Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is a story that is thick with allegory. Young Goodman Brown is a moral story which is told through the perversion of a religious leader. In Young Goodman Brown, Goodman Brown is a Puritan minister who lets his excessive pride in himself interfere with his relations with the community after he meets with the devil, and causes him to live the life of an exile in his own commun
The LakeThe Lake Brave New World As man has progressed through the ages, there has been, essentially, one purpose. That purpose is to arrive at a utopian society, where everyone is happy, disease is nonexistent, and strife, anger, or sadness are unheard of. Only happiness exists. But when confronted with Aldous Huxley\'s Brave New World, we come to realize that this is not, in fact, what the human soul really craves. In fact, Utopian societies are much worse than those of today. In a utopian society, th
The Number One Hit manThe Number One Hit man The Healing Process This is a brief psychological overview of the healing process. The image of healing is best described by Gloria Vanderbilt in A Mother\'s Story when she talks of breaking the invisible unbreakable glass bubble which enclosed her that kept her always anticipating loss with echoes of all past losses. She wrote, for example (Page 3),Some of us are born with a sense of loss there from the beginning, and it pervades us throughout our lives. Loss, as defin
The Poet of NatureThe Poet of Nature William Wordsworth is widely considered one of the most influential English romantic poets. In the preface of his book, Lyrical Ballads, published in 1798, Wordsworth declared that poetry should contain language really used by men. This idea, and many of his others, challenged the old eighteenth-cuntury idea of formal poetry and, therefore, he changed the course of modern poetry (Wordsworth, William DISCovering). Wordsworth was born in Cockermouth, England, to John, a prominen
The Tragedy of One ManThe Tragedy of One Man Koch 1 Jason Koch 1302 A Schonberg November 15, 1995 The Tragedy of One Man Arthur Miller\'s Death of a Salesman can be seen as an eulogy of a dreamer, which depicts one man\'s tragic life and death as he tries to bring his family into grace. Miller does, however, also uses this play to express underlying themes and ideas. Reading Death of a Salesman from the starting point of a Marxist results in the perception that miller uses his play as a means to demonstrate the effec
The Downfall Of Young Goodman BrownThe Downfall Of Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown , by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is a story that is thick with allegory. Young Goodman Brown is a moral story which is told through the perversion of a religious leader. In Young Goodman Brown , Goodman Brown is a Puritan minister who lets his excessive pride in himself interfere with his relations with the community after he meets with the devil, and causes him to live the life of an exile in his own community. Young Goodman Brown begins when Fai
Methamphetamine: Built for Speed?Methamphetamine: Built for Speed? Methamphetamine has reclaimed a place in the lexicon of party drugs. Hailed by nocturnal adventurers, condemned by raver idealists, is speed a sleepless dream or an addictive nightmare? by Brian Otto Here at the end of the millennium, the pace of modern life seems fleeting -- a whirl of minutes, hours and days. In dealing with the changes, humans have equipped themselves with the tools to move faster, more efficiently. At the same time a dependence for the mar
GangsGangs Introduction I. -A Los Angeles family takes a wrong turn into gang territory and is fired upon. A 3-year-old is killed and her 2-year-old brother wounded. -A Chinese immigrant in Brooklyn is kidnapped by a Chinatown gang which demands ransom payments from her family. She is murdered when the family fails to pay. -Two FBI agents and a police sergeant are murdered inside the Washington, D.C. police headquarters by a gang member. -A Pittsburgh police sergeant walking home with his daughter is
Theory of Varied Consumer Choice Behaviour and It'Theory of Varied Consumer Choice Behaviour and It\'s Implicati INTRODUCTION For decades, scholars and practitioners have been frustrated by the very limited capacity of either psychological or marketing models to predict individual choices on particular occasions. This paper discusses a theory which explains the degree to which the extant models omit important influences that produce varied individual choice behaviour. The focus of this paper is on the sequences of product purchases. Discretiona
To Dream a Little DreamTo Dream a Little Dream Many people who dream do not understand why they dream or what their dreams mean. I can still remember one particular dream I had as a young child that still puzzles me. I was in my backyard on my tire swing spinning and swinging around. As I was swinging the door on my dad’s tool shed started to open up. I then saw things that could only be described as humanoid aliens. They then stepped out, captured me, and took me into the tool shed. The tool shed must have really bee
What is Public Relations Select 2 definitions andWhat is Public Relations Select 2 definitions and assess The Mexican Statement, agreed on by the World Assembly of Public Relations Associations in Mexico City in August 1978 (Seitel, 1992, 8), reads, Public relations practice is the art and social science of analysing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organisation leaders, and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organisation\'s and the public interest. Strengths 1. The emphasis that public rela
Why iq test dont test intelligencewhy iq test dont test intelligence Psychology March 7,1997 Why IQ tests don\'t test intelligence The task of trying to quantify a person’s intelligence has been a goal of psychologists since before the beginning of this century. The Binet-Simon scales were first proposed in 1905 in Paris, France and various sorts of tests have been evolving ever since. One of the important questions that always comes up regarding these tools is what are the tests really measuring? Are they measuring a person’s i
Chinese Economic Reform under Communist RuleChinese Economic Reform under Communist Rule Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China\'s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China\'s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems pr
Classical LiberalismClassical Liberalism Classical liberalism was the dominant ideology of capitalism during the periods of eighteenth century. It view was widely accepted. It said that government should just sit back and watch business so they do not cheat the government also to enforce contracts. The classical had many creeds they were Psychological, economic, and ,political. Each view has its own points. In this paper I will discuss those points and show you how Bob Dole is a classical liberalist. Psychological
The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome ExpectancieThe Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping Styles, and Family Alcoholism on Alcohol Consumption Research Proposal by Josh Robbins 100-928-594 November 26, 1996 Economics 143 Abstract One large component of American popular culture today is alcohol. A common stereotype for the effects of alcohol is that as a drug it acts as a stress antagonist. This theory was introduced by Conger (1956) as the Tension Reduction Hypothesis (TRW). It states that alcohol\'s sedative action
CHINESE ECONOMIC REFORMCHINESE ECONOMIC REFORM Chinese Economic Reform under Communist Rule Two years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of China’s leaders that economic reform was necessary. During his tenure as China’s premier, Mao had encouraged social movements such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution which had had as their bases ideologies such as serving the people and maintaining the class struggle. By 1978 Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to
Classical liberalismClassical liberalism Classical liberalism was the dominant ideology of capitalism during the periods of eighteenth century. It view was widely accepted. It said that government should just sit back and watch business so they do not cheat the government also to enforce contracts. The classical had many creeds they were Psychological, economic, and ,political. Each view has its own points. In this paper I will discuss those points and show you how Bob Dole is a classical liberalist. Psychological
The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome ExpectancieThe Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, The Effects of Stress, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Gender, Coping Styles, and Family Alcoholism on Alcohol Consumption Research Proposal by Josh Robbins 100-928-594 November 26, 1996 Economics 143 Abstract One large component of American popular culture today is alcohol. A common stereotype for the effects of alcohol is that as a drug it acts as a stress antagonist. This theory was introduced by Conger (1956) as the Tension Reduction
Another Catcher in the RyeAnother Catcher in the Rye Here is an essay on The Catcher in the Rye Hope you will be able to post it! Through Holden\'s Eyes The Catcher in the Rye has truly earned it\'s place among great classic works. J. D. Salinger created a literary piece that was completely unique. The entire novel was written in the first person view of the 17-year-old, Holden Caulfield. The majority of the story is compiled of Holden\'s rudimentary monologue of \'complexly simple\' thoughts, the rest utilizing his rela
CultsCults There are many types of cults in the world, cults are everywhere but you just do not see them. Every person in the world has been in contact with them in one way or another in many cases you cannot see them. The closest cult we know of is on Rice Lake called the Moonies led by Reverend Myung, where I have currently visited. Cults can be involved in churches and even are earliest religions are called cults. Cults are not the strongest groups\' sects are the strongest group. When you join a
Ordinary PeopleOrdinary People Ordinary People by Judith Guest is the story of a dysfunctional family who relate to one another through a series of extensive defense mechanisms, i.e. an unconscious process whereby reality is distorted to reduce or prevent anxiety. The book opens with seventeen year old Conrad, son of upper middle-class Beth and Calvin Jarrett, home after eight months in a psychiatric hospital, there because he had attempted suicide by slashing his wrists. His mother is a meticulously orderly p
Seasons Of A Man's LifeSeasons Of A Man\'s Life Daniel J. Levinson wrote The Seasons of A Man\'s Life. Mr. Levinson conducted his research for the book in the late 1960\'s. At that time he was a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychiatry of the Yale University School of Medicine, Director of Psychology in the Connecticut Mental Health Center and Director of the Research Unit for Social Psychology and Psychiatry. Early in the book, Mr. Levinson states his reasons for engaging in the research of male adult
Depression And Mental Illness (Crime)Depression And Mental Illness (Crime) Depression and Mental Illness: Crime or Violence/ Treatment or Punishment ABSTRACT Statement of the Problem According to Michael D. Yapko, PhD,(1997) in every way, depression is a growing problem. Rates of depression have steadily climbed over the last 50 years and are significantly higher in those born after 1954 than in those born before. In addition, the average age of on-set depressive episode is steadily decreasing it is now mid-20s whereas it once was
The Greatest DayThe Greatest Day “Buzz” Aldrin, pilot of the Lunar module for the Apollo 11 space flight to the moon, coincided in his priest shortly before the launch of Apollo 11. Aldrin was scared that neither the Apollo 11 mission commander Neil Armstrong, nor the public would understand the social and philosophical ramifications of landing on the moon. Shortly after the Lunar Module landed at Tranquility base, on the surface of the moon on July 20, 1969, Aldrin asked NASA officials and everyone else who mi
The Positronic ManThe Positronic Man THE POSITRONIC MAN An extraordinary story about an extraordinary robot. In the twenty-first century the creation of the positronic brain leads to the development of robot labourers and revolutionises life on Earth. However, to the Martin family, their household robot NDR-113 is more than a tool, it is a trusted friend, a confidant, and a member of the family. Through some unknown manufacturing glitch, NDR-113 or known as Andrew has been blessed, with a capacity for love and a
Young Goodman BrownYoung Goodman Brown The Downfall of Young Goodman Brown Young Goodman Brown , by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is a story that is thick with allegory. Young Goodman Brown is a moral story which is told through the perversion of a religious leader. In Young Goodman Brown , Goodman Brown is a Puritan minister who lets his excessive pride in himself interfere with his relations with the community after he meets with the devil, and causes him to live the life of an exile in his own community. Young Goodman B
John AdamsJohn Adams John Adams, who became the second president of the United States, has been accused by some historians of being the closest thing America ever had to a dictator or monarch (Onuf, 1993). Such strong accusations should be examined in the context of the era in which Mr. Adams lived and served. A closer examination of the historical events occurring during his vice presidency and his term as president, strongly suggests that Adams was not, in fact, a dictator. Indeed, except for his lack o