Plato\'s Theory of Political Philosophy; An Argument


C. 428 B.C.E was the birth time of Plato into an Athenian aristocratic family (Dave & Judy, 1998, 21). His father was Ariston who was believed to have connection to one of the early kings of Athens. His mother was Perictione, who related to 6th - century B.C reformer of the Athenian constitution, Solon. His father died when he was a child, and Plato eventually became Socrates\' disciple. Plato\'s works consisted of a set of 41 so-called "dialogues" plus a collection of 13 letters and a book of Definitions (Bernard Suzanne, 2001, Internet). The Republic is Plato\'s most famous work (Plato, Internet). The most impressive legacy of Plato was the "Academy" that he found in 387. Throughout his lifetime, Plato dramatically contributed to our understanding of Socrates and his restoration of Western philosophical tenet. Plato died in c. 348 B.C in Athens (may be in the Academy).


The Republic, the central work of his middle years (Plato, Internet), was the world\'s first great work of political philosophy (Murry & Mauria, 1988, 7). In it Plato elaborated arguments that were to affect profoundly subsequent discussions in Greece, Rome, medieval Christendom, and the modern world around man, society, government, and morality (Murry & Mauria, 1988, 7). Variety of ideas, theories, doctrines, arguments, knowledge were written in this Republic. Amongst these precepts were his simile (allegory/myth) of the cave, the concept of \'virtue\', mythology, aesthetics, literary criticism, the quest for justice…etc. But the most astounding aspect of Plato (written in the Republic and that has erupted the world) was his "political philosophy". Plato\'s political theory will be our best focal point.


In the Republic, discussion about justice was in the first hierarchy, because Plato thought this justice would lead to "ideal state (utopia)". This justice was referred to everyone had the proper job in accordance to their aptitudes to full-fill their potentialities (Dr. Naret, 2003, 10). In Plato’s mind, a man should not partake in more than one job at once as this would cause him to be projecting a misrepresentation of his character and his talents which would lead him to unhappiness (Plato, Internet). In the ideal polis (utopia), citizens were divided into three classes; philosopher rulers (high class). For Plato, The philosopher king, the ruler comes upon his powers through various means, upbringing and through the study of Forms. This would then qualify him to rule Athens\' utopia after a life of study in truth and justice and the other virtues (Plato, Internet). Furthermore, the rulers of the state must be those who had certain knowledge and certain virtues such as; good ethics, calmness, and patience, and only those who has right and good reasons are capable to rule. In all Plato\'s utopia must encompasses these qualities


iHigh knowledge to understand machinery of government


iCourage, which is the virtue of the protectors.


iConsciousness and justice that are the virtues of all the citizens of the model state (Dr. Naret, 2003, 11). And if there are four virtues in the city, then justice must be left over after the other three have been identified (Plato, Internet). Moreover, in this ideal state, only the philosopher-ruler that was capable of maintaining moral values, because only philosopher-ruler or king that had come across the rigorous scientific training. Resulting from these ideas, Plato blamed the amateur principle of democratic government for what he regarded as it serious dificiencies, because it made people confused due to too many choices.


Bestroding in the second class was the "soldier class", whose duties were to keep the state harmonious, and citizens in this class was called the "guardians" by Plato. Guardians will operated according to wisdom and will rule over those who function according to courage, the auxiliaries, and temperance, government officials (middle class), and labourers and traders (low class). Guardians were to be selected during the common process of education which both class initially shared. Both guardians and philospher-kings would be the lawmakers, and the philosophers and warriors must live a totally communal life, with not only property but women and children in common, in order to prevent them from having a conflict between public and private interest (Plato, Internet).


The lowest class was the civilian population that Plat called \'labourers or traders\'. These people are excluded from any