Pax Romana

Pax Romana Brought 200 years of peace to the Roman Empire and reestablished political and social stability throughout the empire. Also, added new territories and provinces over the span of the two centuries most notably ancient Britain and Arabia. This time also brought about opportunity for those outside of Rome who were now allowed to join the military and the government even escalating to emperor. Although Caligula and Nero took a lot of press for the time, most emperors were competent and sensible. This time of peace and prosperity came to an end in the 3rd century A.D. when military and economic disasters brought about political instability.

Augustus Born in 63 B.C. Gaius Octavius was the grandnephew of Julius Caesar. And in his youth Caesar had him appointed to the College of Pontifices at 16. In 44 B.C. while fighting abroad learned of Caesars death and went home to Italy to find out Caesar had named Augustus his heir. He then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar and opened the way for the two hundred years of peace called the Pax Romana.

Arian heresy Written in the 4th century A.D. by Arius, it denied the full divinity of Jesus. It said that the relationship between God and Jesus was an adoptive relationship. Saying that Jesus was born of Mary and grew and lived with man therefore must be human and God adopted him as his son. The doctrine was deemed heresy at the Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D.

Caesaropapism Most evident at the height of the Byzantine Empire. Caesaropapism said that as long as the church was free to pursue its interests of eternal salvation then they would support the religious claims of the dominant political power.

Petrine Doctrine Asserted that apostles designated there successors as bishops through prayer and the laying on of hands and that bishops have designated there successors the same way since.