Narcotics: Narcotics decrease the sensitivity
to the sensory stimuli because it has a depressant
effect on the central nervous system. Opium,
morphine, codeine, heroin, meperidine, and
methadone are types of narcotics. Natural and
synthetic opiates are considered medically
valuable because they are effective pain relievers.
A reduction of physical activity and drowsiness
are the effects of opiates. Once consuming opiate
you might feel such uncomfortable feelings as
nausea, vomiting and itching. Too much use of
opiate leads to dependency, both physical and
psychological. Sedatives: Sedatives have a
depressant effect on the central nervous system
and is used to treat epilepsy, high blood pressure,
mental disorders and insomnia. Overdoses can
easily come by and fatal withdrawal can also
follow. Emotions become unpredictable, slurred
speech becomes apparent. Sedatives are another
example of fatal withdrawal and dependency.
Withdrawal can cause a convulsion because it was
related with it. Alcohol: Ethyl alcohol is the most
widely used drug and is labeled as a depressant of
the central nervous system. The reason why it is so
known and its effects are also well known is
because drinking alcohol is socially acceptable.
Such effects are mild euphoria and a decrease of
inhibitions. Alcohol can also cause a depressed
feeling, decreased activity and/or sleep. The
control centers in the brain become depressed and
drunkenness occurs once the depressed brainstem
release inhibitions in the cerebrum. Once the
cerebrum has released, impairment of thought,
organization and motor activity follows. Alcohol
has a major physiological effect of the depression
of synaptic transmission. Tranquilizers:
Tranquilizers decrease tension and anxiety without
producing sleep, or significantly impairing mental
and physical function. Although categorized as a
drug, tranquilizers are used to treat severe mental
disorders. Unlike other drugs, tranquilizers do not
produce a physical dependence. Tranquilizers are
used to treat anxiety, tension and muscle spasms.
Stimulants: Caffeine, amphetamines and cocaine
are examples of stimulants, which directly stimulate
the central nervous system. Stimulants can be used
to treat obesity because of the anti-appetite effect
of the amphetamines. A temporary rise in blood
pressure, palpitations, dry mouth, sweating,
headache, diarrhea and dilation are all effects of
amphetamines. Abuse is not uncommon because
amphetamines produce a good mood, more
alertness and less fatigue. Doctors seem to agree
that the amphetamines do not create a physical
dependence, but mental depression and fatigue
will follow the withdrawal. Psychological
dependence appears more often then physical.
Talkativeness, restlessness, sleeplessness,
excessive perspiration, frequent urination and hand
tremors are all evidence of heavy use of
amphetamines. Cocaine is a strong stimulant and
an overdose proves to be fatal. Stimulation with
cocaine is followed by a period of depression. No
signs of physical dependence or tolerance is
evident, but a powerful psychological servility is
apparent. Hallucinogens: Hallucinogens cause
distortions of reality and hallucination occurs. Such
hallucinogens are mescaline, marijuana, and
d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Having a
sense of well being, dreamy sensations, senses of
time, distance, vision and hearing lost, panic, fear,
hallucinations, dizziness, dry mouth, dilated pupils,
burning eyes, urinary frequency, diarrhea, nausea,
vomiting and a definite hunger for anything are all
symptoms of marijuana. LSD generates changes in
mood and behavior. LSD causes dilated pupils,
tremor, raised body temp. and hyperactive
reflexes. Neither drug has a physical dependence
but mild psychological dependence occurs.

Category: Science