Joints arthr/o and articul/o Muscles my/o, muscul/o myos/o

Bones oste/o

Bones support, store minerals, attachment for muscles and marrow produces cells (all but lymphocytes & monocytes)

Study of: rheumatology rheumat/o = watery flow

Orthopedics orth/o = straight

Osteopathy D.O.

Chiropractors chir/o = hand; manipulation to release nerves

I. Bones

a. Osseous tissue is connective tissue rich in blood vessels & nerves

b. Osteocytes + collagen + calcium salts

c. Cartilaginous tissue lacks Ca

d. Osteoblasts = immature cells; osteoclasts = phagocytic cells that clean up debris & reduce thickness of bone

e. Vitamin D needed for absorption of calcium and phosphorous in intestines

f. 206 bones in body

i. long bones

ii. short bones

iii. flat bones

iv. sesamoid bones = increase muscle use/flexibility

g. Structure:

i. Diaphysis = shaft, physis = to grow, dia = through, comp

ii. Epiphysis and epiphyseal line (growth plate)

iii. Metaphysis

iv. Periosteum = surrounding bone tissue

v. Articular cartilage = cushions and is slick to allow movement

vi. Compact (cortical) bone is most dense around shaft

vii. Haversian canals help to supply O2 and nutrients

viii. Medullary cavity – tunnel contains yellow bone marrow

ix. Cancellous bone = spongy trabecular bone

x. Red bone marrow in trabeculae is blood cells & Hgb particularly long bones: sternum, pelvis, ribs

h. Processes – extend out

i. Head, trochanter (greater & lesser or major & minor), tuberosity, tubercle, condyle (lateral & medial), olecranon (elbow)

i. Depressions

i. Fossa – cavity

ii. Foramen – opening for nerves & blood vessels

iii. Fissure – narrow, deep slit-like opening

iv. Sinus – hollow cavity

Digits - #1 - #5

Pelvic girdle: Female wider, oval –vs- triangular; ligaments sacro-iliac stretch,

goniometer measures flexion/extension angles

distal, proximal


Dupuytren’s contracture – flexion of fingers

thenar eminence – rounded area base of thumb, fat pad

hallux valgus = displacement of great toe toward other toes

calluses = thickened layer of skin and temporary formation of osseous material between ends of fractured bone

avulsion = tearing away

navicular = wrist and ankle bone

pathological fractures


irritability = ability of muscle tissue to receive & respond to stimuli

flaccid = less than normal tone

atrophy = wasting away

torticollis = wryneck = complete tetanus of one muscle of neck

Abnormal contractions

twitch, spasm, cramp, convulsion, fibrillation, tic (involuntary control of muscle usually voluntarily controlled)

Myasthenia Gravis:

Nerves unable to innervate muscle due to lack of acetylcholine

Face & neck primarily involved, eye muscles

Difficulty swallowing, chewing, talking

Rhabdomyolysis rhabdomyo = skeletal muscle connected to bones

Acute, sometimes fatal disease, also called myoglobinuria because intracellular protein myoglobin is found in urine when severe muscle damage has occurred. Also can happen with anesthesia, malignant hyperthermia, poisonings, athletes with extensive training, electrical shock.



Tumors, trauma, PVD, gangrene, burns