MUSCULOSKELETAL


Joints arthr/o and articul/o Muscles my/o, muscul/o myos/o


Bones oste/o


Bones support, store minerals, attachment for muscles and marrow produces cells (all but lymphocytes & monocytes)


Study of: rheumatology rheumat/o = watery flow


Orthopedics orth/o = straight


Osteopathy D.O.


Chiropractors chir/o = hand; manipulation to release nerves


I. Bones


a. Osseous tissue is connective tissue rich in blood vessels & nerves


b. Osteocytes + collagen + calcium salts


c. Cartilaginous tissue lacks Ca


d. Osteoblasts = immature cells; osteoclasts = phagocytic cells that clean up debris & reduce thickness of bone


e. Vitamin D needed for absorption of calcium and phosphorous in intestines


f. 206 bones in body


i. long bones


ii. short bones


iii. flat bones


iv. sesamoid bones = increase muscle use/flexibility


g. Structure:


i. Diaphysis = shaft, physis = to grow, dia = through, comp


ii. Epiphysis and epiphyseal line (growth plate)


iii. Metaphysis


iv. Periosteum = surrounding bone tissue


v. Articular cartilage = cushions and is slick to allow movement


vi. Compact (cortical) bone is most dense around shaft


vii. Haversian canals help to supply O2 and nutrients


viii. Medullary cavity – tunnel contains yellow bone marrow


ix. Cancellous bone = spongy trabecular bone


x. Red bone marrow in trabeculae is blood cells & Hgb particularly long bones: sternum, pelvis, ribs



h. Processes – extend out


i. Head, trochanter (greater & lesser or major & minor), tuberosity, tubercle, condyle (lateral & medial), olecranon (elbow)


i. Depressions


i. Fossa – cavity


ii. Foramen – opening for nerves & blood vessels


iii. Fissure – narrow, deep slit-like opening


iv. Sinus – hollow cavity


Digits - #1 - #5


Pelvic girdle: Female wider, oval –vs- triangular; ligaments sacro-iliac stretch,


ROM
ADL
goniometer measures flexion/extension angles


distal, proximal


symmetry


Dupuytren’s contracture – flexion of fingers


thenar eminence – rounded area base of thumb, fat pad


hallux valgus = displacement of great toe toward other toes


calluses = thickened layer of skin and temporary formation of osseous material between ends of fractured bone


avulsion = tearing away


navicular = wrist and ankle bone


pathological fractures


prosthesis


irritability = ability of muscle tissue to receive & respond to stimuli


flaccid = less than normal tone


atrophy = wasting away


torticollis = wryneck = complete tetanus of one muscle of neck


Abnormal contractions


twitch, spasm, cramp, convulsion, fibrillation, tic (involuntary control of muscle usually voluntarily controlled)


Myasthenia Gravis:


Nerves unable to innervate muscle due to lack of acetylcholine


Face & neck primarily involved, eye muscles


Difficulty swallowing, chewing, talking


Rhabdomyolysis rhabdomyo = skeletal muscle connected to bones


Acute, sometimes fatal disease, also called myoglobinuria because intracellular protein myoglobin is found in urine when severe muscle damage has occurred. Also can happen with anesthesia, malignant hyperthermia, poisonings, athletes with extensive training, electrical shock.


BKA


AKA


Tumors, trauma, PVD, gangrene, burns