This essay Multiple Births has a total of 1032 words and 5 pages.
Multiple births are rare in humans with twins as being the most common form
of this event. Multiple births can arise in many different combinations of ways
but the probability of giving birth to more than one child remains fairly
constant when compared to the entire human race. The chances of multiple births
can also vary from race and genetic background. Scientist and researchers do
not know what the exact cause of these variations is but many of them feel that
it is caused by hormone differences between different racial groups and/or the
difference in social class.
The prenatal and infant mortality is much higher in multiple pregnancies
than in pregnancies that only involves one child. The danger of premature birth
also increased with the higher number of offspring that are involved. In many
multiple births, not all of the children survived to childhood or were born dead.
Through the advances in technology, the survival rate of infants born in a
multiple pregnancy has increased. The first quintuplets, five babies born in a
single pregnancy, to survive in medical history were the Dionne quintuplets.
The use of drugs that treat female sterility, or fertility drugs, may
increase the chances of giving birth to multiple children. These drugs cause
the ovaries to release an egg once a month but in some cases they release more
than one egg, sometimes releasing several at a time, increasing the chances of a
multiple birth. The drug clomiphene citrate is one of the most widely taken
fertility drug and has resulted in the birth of twins about once in every twelve
births, much greater than the chances of the birth of natural twins.
Twins are the most common form of a multiple pregnancy. About one in
eighty-seven births result in the birth of twins. Twins can be fraternal, also
known as dizygotic twins, or identical, also called monozygotic twins, with the
birth of identical twins being the rarest, occurring about four times in every
thousand births, about one-forth as often as the birth of fraternal twins. This
ratio of the birth of twins to the total number of births remains fairly
constant but the birth of fraternal twins can alter greatly. Fraternal twins
are most common among black African followed by people of European origin.
Asian races originating from the orient are the least likely to give birth to
The birth of twins can occur in two different ways, the fertilization of
a single egg or the fertilization of two eggs. In the case of dizygotic twins,
the woman\'s ovaries release two eggs about the same time instead of one, with
each being fertilized by the male\'s sperm, fraternal twins begin to develop.
The two zygotes develop differently, each having a different genetic coding.
They can be both boys, both girls, or a single boy and a single girl. Because
each embryo develops on its own from different genetic characteristics,
dizygotic twins resemble family characteristics as do brother and sister.
The birth of monozygotic twins takes place much differently than do the
births of fraternal twins. Identical twins originate from a single egg,
fertilized similarly to that of a single pregnancy. A change transpires early
in the pregnancy that causes the development of identical twins. The change
from a single birth to the birth of monozygotic twins occurs when the zygote
ruptures into two separate structures. These two parts begin to develop into
individual fetuses, sharing a similar genetic code and developing in a similar
manner. Identical twins are of the same sex, resemble each other very closely,
and have similar fingerprints and blood types.
Scientists also believe that Siamese twins, also known as conjoined
twins, develop in a similar fashion as do monozygotic twins. Siamese twins are
identical twins with the difference that the zygote did not divide completely
during their development. Such twins are usually joined at the hip, chest,
abdomen, buttocks, or head. With current monitoring equipment, conjoined twins
can be detected maturing in the mother and during birth a Cesarean section is
sometimes needed to deliver the children safely. Separation of the twins
sometimes leads to the death of one or both of the twins. This births are a
rare event, occurring only about once in every fifty-thousand births.
Other forms of multiple births such as triplets, quadruplets and
quintuplets, occur very similarly to the birth of twins. Births of triplets are
rarer than the birth of twins, occurring approximately once in every seven-
thousand nine-hundred births. The birth of triplets can occur in a combination
of ways. If the zygote divides into three separate structures in the early
stages of development,
Hypotheses of the Effects of Wolf PredationHypotheses of the Effects of Wolf Predation John Feldersnatch December 1st, 1995 Abstract: This paper discusses four hypotheses to explain the effects of wolf predation on prey populations of large ungulates. The four proposed hypotheses examined are the predation limiting hypothesis, the predation regulating hypothesis, the predator pit hypothesis, and the stable limit cycle hypothesis. There is much research literature that discusses how these hypotheses can be used to interpret various data s
The WolverineThe Wolverine BY:William Cline I am doing my report on the wolverine.Which is classified in the kingdom Anamalia, the phylum Vertibrae and the class Mamalia.The scientific name for the wolverine is Gulo gulo.Their common name is glutton. The Wolverine ranges from northern Europe and Siberia through northern North America. Their distribution once extended as far south as Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and perhaps Michigan. It looks like a weasel maybe because it is in the weasel family.It has b
BiologyBiology Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialities may be oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. BOTANY is concerned with plant life, ZOOLOGY with animal life, algology with ALGAE, MYCOLOGY with fungi, MICROBIOLOGY with microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria, CYTOLOGY with CELLS, and so on. All biological specialties, however, are concerned with l
Carl Gustav JungCarl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the school of analytical psychology. He proposed and developed the concepts of the extroverted and introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. The issues that he dealt with arose from his personal experiences. For many years Jung felt as if he had two separate personalities. One introverted while the other was extroverted. This interplay results in his study of integration and wholeness. His work h
Theory Of Evolution By Natural And Sexual SelectioTheory Of Evolution By Natural And Sexual Selection Introduction It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwinís time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution could not come up with a satisfactory mechanism that woul
Zoology Report On ReptilesZoology Report On Reptiles A. Adaptations: enabled them to live their entire life without water. 1) lungs - most have 2 but snakes have 1 which fits neatly into its slender body * How canthey breathe while eating then?? a special tube in the mouth that extends outside the snake\'s mouth while swallowing so doesn\'t suffocate 2) scaly skin a. dry and leathery b. advantage: helps prevent loss of water in dry environment 3) toes, claws, suction cups - help climb and dig (some are legless Ex. snakes
Greg GraffinGreg Graffin The band Bad religion was formed in the early eighties and has now been around over 15 years and has released over eight albums, the lead singer has continued his schooling and now has one bachelors degree ,a masters and is working on his Ph.D. Greg Graffin was born in 1965 in Wisconsin. His mother and father were divorced after his birth. In 1976 his mother his brother and him moved to San Fernando valley California, which is now the punk rock capital of the world. Like millions o
The Life of AristotleThe Life of Aristotle When Plato died in 347 bc, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias (died 345 bc), was ruler. There he counseled Hermias and married his niece and adopted daughter, Pythias. After Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians, Aristotle went to Pella, the Macedonian capital, where he became the tutor of the king\'s young son Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great. In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athe
The Life And Works AristotleThe Life And Works Aristotle When Plato died in 347 bc, Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias (died 345 bc), was ruler. There he counseled Hermias and married his niece and adopted daughter, Pythias. After Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians, Aristotle went to Pella, the Macedonian capital, where he became the tutor of the king\'s young son Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great. In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned
ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH An abbreviation is a shorter way to write a word or phrase. People use abbreviations for words that they write a lot. The English language often uses the apostrophe mark \' to show that a word is written in a shorter way, but some abbreviations do not use this mark. Some abbreviations use the period mark, especially the ones that come from the Latin language. Some examples of common English abbreviations are don\'t for do not , shouldn\'t for should not , etc. for et cet
EducationEducation I am supposed to find out the purpose of my education if there is one at all, I really am not sure if my education so far has had a purpose maybe by the end the purpose will come out. So I will tell everything I remember about the schools I went to I hope if finding out the purpose. I went to four different elementary schools: Normandy Elementary, some genius school that I only went to for six months and I canít remember the name of it, Harrison Elementary, and Prather Elementary. I we
POVERTY A SUBJECTPOVERTY A SUBJECT Nearly 60% poor live in our human world. For example, countries like India and other who has thick population and dominated by illiterates and semi- littermates (semi-literate means with less literacy level which deprives them from employment in high tech or medium industries). This category does not fit into high tech industries. For them agricultural, small and cottage industries are most suitable. http://members.tripod.com/sadashivan_nair/quotpovertyquotasubject/index.html h
James D. WatsonJames D. Watson James watson was born in Chicago, Illinois on april 6th, 1928. he went to school for eight years and went to high school for two years. Then he received a tuition scholarship to the university of chicago , and went there for four years . in 1947 , he received a b.s.c DEGREE IN ZOOLOGY. HIS INTEREST WAS IN BIRDWATCHING , BUT LATER , HE GOT MORE INTERESTED IN GENETICS . AFTER HE HAD EARNED MANY EDUCATION RELATED DEGREES IN DIFFERENT SUBJECTS , HE STUDIED THE EFFECT OD X-RAYS ON BAC
Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, was one of the most brilliant men in history. His interests were boundless, and his accomplishments were great and varied. He was a philosopher, educator, naturalist, politician, scientist, architect, inventor, pioneer in scientific farming, musician, and writer, and was the foremost spokesmen for democracy in his day. He was born at Shadwell in Goochland County, Virginia on April 13, 1743, to Jane Randolph and Peter Jeffer
AthensAthens Athens has been around for 2,500 years. Athens is the capitol of Greece and largest city of Greece. Athens is on a small plain that lies southward to the Saronic Gulf, a branch of the Aegean Sea. Athens has an area of 427 sq./km. (165 sq./mi. ) and a population of 3,096,775. Athens is surrounded by mountains: Aigaleos to the west, Parnes to the north, Pentelikon to the northeast, and Hymettus to the east. All four of the mountains is made up of either marble or limestone. Athens has a typ
Charles Darwin and the Development and impact of tCharles Darwin and the Development and impact of the Theory of Evolution by Natural and Sexual Selection Introduction It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwinís time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution coul
To What Extent Does Acid Precipitation Affect AnneTo What Extent Does Acid Precipitation Affect Annelids? In order to truly understand acid rain and it\'s eventual effect on earthworms, it would be best to look at the causes of acid rain. How and why does altered acidity in precipitation have a devastating effect? Acid rain is charecterized as Precipitation that has a pH lower than about 5.0 (Allaby, Michael (1994) Ecology, Oxford Press,). Acid rain is created by many things, of which pollution from cars contributes the most. Ever since the I
The Spectacled BearThe Spectacled Bear The Spectacled Bear, or Tremarctos Ornatus, is an endangered species. This rare bear can only be found in a few elusive spots in the world. Many endangered species all over the world donít deserve the respect and care that they need. That is why many endangered species often become extinct or remain on the endangered species list for the remainder of their survival on Earth. Today, as more species become endangered, more people become involved in their care. Many things are b
EthologyEthology The biological study of animal behavior is called Ethology. All behavior is a reaction to a stimulus. John B. Watson influenced animal behavior in the twentieth century. He published a book in 1924 called Behaviorism. Jakob von Uexkull and O. Heinroth started a school that taught about animal behavior. There are two categories of animal behavior: genetically determined or environmentally determined. Animal behavior is the different ways that animals do different things, such as hunt