Motivation


Lesson 3


Short Answer


1. Define motivation. Provide your own examples of a motive and a drive.


Motivation is the process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses. For example, a gold medal in a sport event acts as a motive; since it is an honor to win the gold medal, the gold medal acts as a motive so that the participators try their best to compete.


Drives are internal states that arise in response to a disequilibrium in an animal’s physiological needs. For example, a hungry mouse will steal foods from the cat’s food bowl even though it is dangerous, but the hunger acts as the drive to drive the mouse eats cat’s food.


2. Define instinct. Provide an example of a behavior that appears to be instinctual in humans. Also indicate the arguments that have been used to challenge instincts as explanations for behavior.


Instinct is preprogrammed tendencies that are essential to a species’ survival. For example, human babies suck at everything such as fingers, milk bottles, or, in the most nature way, the mother’s breasts. This is instinctual because every “preprogrammed” baby knows how to suck.


The argument is the instinctual drift – the tendency for learned behavior to drift toward instinctual behavior over time.


3. Describe what is meant by self-actualization, tell how it occurs, and identify the criticisms that have been raised concerning this theory.


Self-actualization is that people have moved beyond basic human needs, such as being nourished, safe, secure, loved and loving, in the quest for the fullest development of their potentials. In other words, self-actualization occurs when the lower-level needs – biological, safety, attachment, esteem, cognitive, and esthetic – are satisfied.


The criticism is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: basic human motives form a hierarchy and that the needs at each level of the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next level can be achieved; these needs progress from basic biological needs to the need for transcendence.



4. Define locus of control. Explain how it develops and provide an example of how locus of control orientation motivates behavior.


Locus of control is one of the dimension along which attributions can vary. With stability, there are four kinds of attributions of motivated behaviors as outcomes – ability attribution is made for internal-stable combination; effort for the internal-but-unstable combination; a difficult test when external-stable forces are assumed; and luck for unstable-external combination.


5. What are the seven universal emotional expressions described by Ekman? How did researchers determine that these seven emotions are universal?


The seven universal emotional expressions are fear, degust, happiness, surprise, contempt, anger, and sadness.


The seven universal emotional expressions are universal because the seven expressions are recognized and produced worldwide in response to those emotions; people from a variety of cultures all able to identify the emotions associated with expressions.


6. Compare and contrast the James-Lange theory and the Lazarus-Schachter theory of emotions.


In James-Lange theory, which is a peripheral-feedback theory of emotion, states that an eliciting stimulus triggers a behavioral response that sends different sensory and motor feedback to the brain and creates the feeling of a specific. In Lazarus-Schachter theory, with respect to emotions, the process through which physiological arousal is interpreted with respect to circumstances in the particular setting in which it is being experienced; also, the recognition and evaluation of a stressor to assess the demand, the size of the threat, the resources available for dealing with it, and appropriate coping strategies.


The main contrast between the James-Lange theory and the Lazarus-Schachter theory of emotions is the sequence of events – James-Lange theory uses the order of “perception of stimulus, then arousal, then emotion”, while Lazarus-Schachter theory uses the order of “perception of stimulus, then arousal with cognitive label, then emotion” – in which the Lazarus-Schachter theory consists of a cognitive label in emotion, whereas the James-Lange theory doesn’t.



Essay Questions


1. Describe the characteristics of a person who is high in need for achievement. How would he/she differ from someone who is low in need for achievement? How does McClelland determine who is high or low in need for achievement? How does this need develop?


A person with strong achievement