Models of Psychology


Biological – views human behavior in biological concepts (inheritance, genes, stress, hormones)


Psychodynamic (Freud) – behavior is brought about by unconscious inner forces – uncontrollable


Cognitive – how people understand and think about external world (Structuralism & Functionalism) mental activities


Behaviors – Observable behavior should be the focus. (J.B. Watson)


Humanistic – Free will, facilitate human beings


Psychology-Scientific study of human behavior and mental process


Counseling Psychology-Focuses on patterns of normal behavior (Career, parenting, Childhood)


Industrial Psychology-Work related, organizations


Consumer Psychology – Buying habits of individuals (advertisement)


Social Psychology – how people’s actions are effected by others


Structuralism –study of the structure of the conscious mind


Functionalism – school of psychology, emphasizing the study of how mind and behavior enable an individual to adapt to a changing environment


Gestalt -- An organized whole, gestalt psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into wholes


Introspection – Look inwards, report inner experiences and sensations


Theories – Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organize and predict behavior


Hypothesis -- an assumption an interpretation tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences the antecedent clause of a conditional statement.


Research – a careful search, collection of information


Coe relational research – statistical measure of relationship


Negative correlation – equally predictive – indicates an inverse relationship


Experiment- a research method in which the investigator manipulates one or more factors, to observe effect.


Sensations—process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment


Experimental Manipulation


Variable – an event or condition which can have different values, ideally in experiments an event or condition which can be measured and varies quantatively


Control Group - the group in an experiment which are equivalent to the experimental group, but which do not receive the independent variable


Independent Variable – the experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effects are being studied


Dependant Variable – the experimental factor, in psychology the behavioral or mental process, that is being measured the variable that may change in response to manipulations to the independent variable


Perception – selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events


Psychophysics – study of relationship between characteristics of stimuli such as their intensity and our psychological experience of them


Absolute – the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus


Threshold—level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse


Noise – undesired sound


Difference Threshold – classical conditioning the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus


Figure/Ground relationship


Grouping (laws) – perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups


Depth Perception (cues of depth perception)


Illusions – perceptions that do not agree with other more trustworthy perceptions


Learning – a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience


Conditioning – process of learning associations PAVLOV


Operant Conditioning - we learn to associate a response and its consequence (Button, Vending Machine) behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment


Classical Conditioning – We learn to associate two stimuli (Lightning, Thunder)


Extinction – diminishing of a conditioned response, occurs in classical conditioning when an UCS does not follow a CS


Generalizations – the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to evoke similar responses


Discriminations—in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish between a CS and another stimuli the do not signal and unconditioned stimuli


Shaping—operant conditioning procedure in which rein forcers guide behavior towards closer approximations of a goal


Reinforcements (types) in classical conditioning the pairing of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus. In operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows


Shaping – rein forcers guide behavior closer and closer until desired goal


Positive strengthens response by presenting a stimulus after response and Negative strengthens response by reducing or removing aversive stimulus – Primary are initially satisfying Secondary are learned


Schedule of Reinforcements - Partial – responses are sometimes reinforced and sometimes not. Fixed Ratio Schedule – reinforce behavior after a set of responses


Figure/Ground – organization of visual field into objects, figures stand out


Perceptual Organization – how we organize and interpret our sensations so they become meaningful relationships


Depth Perception – ability to see objects in 3 dimensions although the images that strike the retina are 2 dimensional: allows us to judge distances


PERCEPTION CUES – VISUAL CLIFF – lab device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals – BINOCULAR CUES –