This essay Microsoft has a total of 894 words and 6 pages.
I feel this example shows supply and demand in addition to monopolistic
competition. This entire ordeal is over a free browser that Microsoft includes
with windows for free and gives out on the Internet for free just as Netscape
and most other browser companies do.
The government feels that Microsoft is creating a demand purely for their
products by forcing its browser on suppliers and controlling prices. I have yet
to see where Microsoft is charging extraordinary prices for any of these free
programs nor do I see how Netscape, in using the governments definition, a
"monopoly" itself, is "being forced out of business" by
Microsoft’s free browser.
Remember: the charge is against including Internet Explorer with Windows, not
the Windows monopoly itself. It is much better to have one operating system than
20 or even two. Software compatibility, technical support, and setup are much
more simplified with one operating system. Programs today are specifically
designed to be "Windows compatible." Would you rather have 20 (local)
phone companies, each with a different line and number running into your house
or one, as is the case now?
Internet Explorer brings browser competition to a market that is essentially
monopolistic itself. Internet Explorer gives Netscape a competitive product
where before virtually none existed. The purpose of antitrust laws is to prevent
only harmful monopoly. Microsoft’s operating system near monopoly is harmful
in very few ways. Nor is Intel\'s chip near monopoly harmful, nor is Netscape’s
browser near monopoly.
Other reasons easily explain how Microsoft came about to its size and how new
companies constantly spring up in the computer industry. Computer software is a
very volatile industry. To succeed in this industry all you basically need is a
good program and a way to offer it for sale. All they have to do is make a
program and copy it on a disk. Since making an extra disk containing the program
costs all of 2 cents, it is more costly for the software company to print the
box and manuals, than it is to make one extra disk. But it does cost Microsoft
to develop a new program. No matter how cheap a disk is, capital investment such
as salaries, factories, storage, and programmers always exist.
Even though development costs are sunk and additional production costs are
nonexistent, other costs are incurred. Besides, supply and demand determines
where a price will fall. Another thing about the computer market is its
ever-changing program market. For all we know, anyone literate in programming
may develop a better program than Windows.
If consumers like it, we may soon find another browser monopolist. For
reasons similar to this, computer industry leaders have vastly changed in just a
few years. At times Apple, IBM, Intel, Netscape, AT&T and even Commodore,
have or had large, sometimes monopolist-like markets.
Characteristics of monopolies that cause trouble are:
(1) Restriction of output.
(2) Higher prices along with this restriction.
(3) Restriction of entry to a particular market and, in a few cases.
(4) Lack of innovation due to lack of competition.
Not a single one of these problems is experience with Microsoft. These
problems are only drastic when an item is in a secluded market with no close
substitutes. Computers are definitely not necessities and there are few barriers
to entry in the computer market (the only noticeable being computer literacy).
Microsoft certainly does not restrict output and hold prices at extreme
levels. If they did, nobody would buy Windows 95 or 98 when it came out. There
is no reason to buy an upgrade except that people are looking for something new
or something bigger and better. New versions of Windows do not sell because
consumers aren’t forced to buy them. They sell because consumers want them.
Many of Microsoft’s major products are included with Windows. Giving products
away at no monetary cost is certainly not restricting output?
Netscape had an almost full monopoly (90%) and still has a semi-monopoly at
65-70% of the browser market. So what they are worried about?
They use the same methods of distribution of their software by offering it
for free and having Internet providers include it with their registration
software. Before Internet Explorer came along, we sat for long periods waiting
for browser upgrades. There was essentially one browser - Netscape. Upgrades
have been almost constant since the introduction of Explorer.
The result: two companies with advanced browsers competing to build a better
browser. Microsoft is not the only operating system to choose from. While very
practical and well suited for the current computer industry, Windows is not
alone. Many other operating systems, some even free, are available.
There are around nine in the
Topics Related to Microsoft
AOL, Netscape, Internet suites, Microsoft, Web browser, Internet Explorer, Windows 10, Windows XP, Monopoly, Windows 95, Netscape Navigator, United States v. Microsoft Corp.
Essays Related to Microsoft
America Online: Is It For Me?America Online: Is It For Me? You have probably heard of the Internet, but you weren\'t really sure if it was for you. You thought about it, but after all it costs so much and things like pornography and improper language are used everywhere, right? Wrong! Perhaps, I can convince you that America Online will be worth your time and money. One of the main reasons that people don\'t go online is that they think that it costs too much. America Online or AOL doesn\'t really cost all that much. When y
Abortion Clinics Should Not Be Closed In The USAbortion Clinics Should Not Be Closed In The US In 1973, the Supreme Court’s decision made it possible for women to get safe, legal abortions from well-trained medical surgeons, and therefore led to dramatic decreases in pregnancy-related injury and death (“abortion”). Now there is a new proposal to close abortion clinics. This proposal takes away the privacy rights of American women that are guaranteed by our Constitution. By closing abortion clinics the government is not only taking away women
Walt WhitmanWalt Whitman Walt Whiteman though himself out to be the poet of American democracy. His poetry described an america where the future had already begun. Whitman believed every individual had as much dignity, and inmportance as anyone else. No job was considered to small or insubordinate. He believed that in order to reach their full potential, people had to break down the barriers that seperated them from others and from parts of their own being. He enciouraged things that made people less embara
The Bubble Economy of JapanThe Bubble Economy of Japan The Economy of Japan had experience a tremendous growth since the end of the Korean war. The growth of GNP in 1967 and 1968 was above 10 % (double digit growth period) which exceed countries such as Britain, France and Germany. The economy experienced a boost is due to many reasons, such as: enlargement of industrial facilities, massive adaptation of western technology and education, lower the military expense to 1% of GNP, relation with power nation, human resources
Alcoholism And Its EffectsAlcoholism And Its Effects Michael Patterson Prof. Gould April 4, 1999 English 120 Alcohol Affects Us All When people hear the word “drug,” they usually think of an illegal substance such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, or any other drug that can be found on the street. Most people never consider the fact that consuming alcohol can be just as harmful as illegal drugs, not only on the body, but on the mind and spirit as well (#1). If constantly abused, alcohol can be even worse for one than taking
Netscape Analysis ReportNetscape Analysis Report I. History Netscape Communications Corporation, originally named Mosaic Communications Corporation (MCOM) was founded in April 1994 by Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen. They released their first browser products free to Internet users in September 1994. Jim Clark is chairman of Netscape Communications Corporation. Before founding the company, Clark was the chairman of Silicon Graphics, a computer hardware manufacturer he founded in 1982. Marc Andreessen is vice president of
Bubble EconomyBubble Economy The Economy of Japan had experience a tremendous growth since the end of the Korean war. The growth of GNP in 1967 and 1968 was above 10 % (double digit growth period) which exceed countries such as Britain, France and Germany. The economy experienced a boost is due to many reasons, such as: enlargement of industrial facilities, massive adaptation of western technology and education, lower the military expense to 1% of GNP, relation with power nation, human resources and their spi
Netscape Analysis ReportNetscape Analysis Report Netscape Analysis Report Accounting 2 Honors I. History Netscape Communications Corporation, originally named Mosaic Communications Corporation (MCOM) was founded in April 1994 by Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen. They released their first browser products free to Internet users in September 1994. Jim Clark is chairman of Netscape Communications Corporation. Before founding the company, Clark was the chairman of Silicon Graphics, a computer hardware manufacturer he founded
Murder Must AdvertiseMurder Must Advertise When advertising executive Victor Dean dies from a fall down the stairs at Pym\'s Publicity, Lord Peter Wimsey is asked to investigate. It seems that, before he died, Dean had begun a letter to Mr. Pym suggesting some very unethical dealings at the posh London ad agency. Wimsey goes undercover and discovers that Dean was part of the fast crowd at Pym\'s, a group taken to partying and doing drugs. Wimsey and his brother-in-law, Chief-Inspector Parker, rush to discover who is
ModemsModems Modems are used to connect two computers over a phone line. Modem is short for Modulator Demodulator. It\'s a device that converts data from digital computer signals to analog signals that can be sent over a phone line. This is called modulation. The analog signals are then converted back into digital data by the receiving modem. This is called demodulation. A modem is fed digital information, in the form of ones and zeros, from the CPU. The modem then analyzes this information and conver
Computers: Nonverbal CommunicationsComputers: Nonverbal Communications CHAPTER 1: Rationale and Literature Review Magnafix says, Have you figured out the secret entrance to Kahn Draxen\'s castle? Newtrik sighs deeply. Newtrik says, I think so, but I haven\'t found the stone key yet! Magnafix grins mischievously. Magnafix gives a stone key to Newtrik. Newtrik smiles happily. Newtrik shakes hands with Magnafix. Newtrik says, Thanks! Magnafix grins broadly and says, No problem... Newtrik leaves west. Introduction Purpose The
Regulating The Internet: Who's In ChargeRegulating The Internet: Who\'s In Charge James H Huff English 111G Fall 1996 The internet was started by the military in the late forties, and has since grown to an incredibly large and complex web, which will no doubt effect all of us in the years to come. The press has recently taken it upon themselves to educate the public to the dark side of this web, a network which should be veiwed as a tremendous resource of information and entertainment. Instead, due to this negative image, more and mor
Response To AOL ControversyResponse To AOL Controversy The article America Online, while you can by Bob Woods is all about the hoopla concerning the fact that America Online, or AOL, has not been able to accommodate its vast amount of customers. This is due to AOL\'s new flat rate, which substituted their original hourly deal. Many AOL users experience busy signals when trying to log on. When and if they do get on AOL, the service runs extremely slow because of the overload of users. Woods threatens that AOL will lose m
The History of The InternetThe History of The Internet Imagine talking about the latest elections with someone three thousand miles away without receiving a tremendous phone bill. Or sending a letter to a friend or relative and having it arrive one second later. How would it feel to know that any source of information is at your fingertips at the press of a button? All of these are possible and more with a system of networks all connected and sending information at light speed from place to place known as the Internet. Th
Cryogenics: Is It Worth Waiting ForCryogenics: Is It Worth Waiting For Imagine being frozen in time to escape a deadly illness, then getting warmed when a cure is found. There is question on whether cryogenic methods should be used. To fully understand cryogenics a knowledge of cold, background information on some branches of cryogenics, some problems with cryopresevation, and different peoples views towards cryogenics is needed. Cold is usually considered hostile to mankind. Most people hate cold and with reasons. If not caref
Diabetes MellitusDiabetes Mellitus DIABETES MELLITUS In the United States, about 16 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus, although only half of these individuals are diagnosed. Every year, about 650,000 people learn they have the disease. Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of all deaths and the sixth leading cause of all deaths caused by disease. Diabetes is the most common in adults over 45 years of age; in people who are overweight or physically inactive; in individuals who have an immediat
EtradeEtrade E*trade is… Provider of online investing services. It has established a popular, branded destination Web site for self-directed investors. It offers automated order placement and execution, along with a suite of products that can be personalized. (Dow Jones Interactive) As of September 30, 1999, Etrade had 1,551,000 active brokerage accounts, up 185% for the year, with assets held in customer brokerage accounts in excess of $28.4 billion, up 154% from last year. We began offering online i
E-Mail businessE-Mail business An Economic Comparison of Mail Communications New technologies and advances in electronics have always allowed big business to do things faster, more efficiently, and more professionally than ever before. Generally, every new technology is a step forward for speed, productivity and reductions in spending. But, despite this unwritten principle, the coming of the latest E-mail or (electronic mail) communications innovation has brought many pros and cons with the package. Electronic
ApocalypseApocalypse by: Luke Hoagland FOLLOWING IS AN IMPORTANT REVELATION BEING MADE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC. THIS IS THE ONLY TIME YOU WILL BE CONTACTED. Disclaimer: The following information contains predictions of the future. This has been written for people who want to know what is on the horizon for humanity, and most importantly, WHAT THEY CAN DO ABOUT IT. Please understand that if you read this material, you will be doing it by your own choice. If your reaction causes you to want to report me to AO
History of InternetHistory of Internet Without a doubt, the Internet is undergoing a major transition as it experiences a tremendous influx of new users. Due to the anarchic, distributed nature of the net, we cannot even begin to enumerate the population of the Internet or its growth. As more of the world\'s population moves on-line, new concerns will arise which did not confront the earlier generations. The new culture will demand different resources, services and technology than the old generations expected and
Limiting Children’s Access To Internet PornographyLimiting Children’s Access To Internet Pornography Pornography is one of mankind’s most revered, respected, and repulsed pastimes. Adults can use pornography to relieve stress, enhance their sex lives, or simply as a means of entertainment. One of the easiest and most popular ways of obtaining pornographic material is over the Internet. The only downside is that the Internet is accessible to children; therefore, pornography is accessible to children. While adults should have limitless access to
Computer ProgrammingComputer Programming Choosing to do a research on a career can be a little easier to do when you have some or a general knowledge a particular field of work. There are many different types of jobs one can decide to undertake, one of which is in the most popular line of work today: Computer Programming. Although this line of work might seem a little tiresome but you might find it enjoyable by people with lots of patience and the will to do long and tidious work. Most programmers in large corporat
MultimediaMultimedia Multimedia, or mixed-media, systems offer presentations that integrate effects existing in a variety of formats, including text, graphics, animation, audio, and video. Such presentations first became commercially available in very primitive form in the early 1980s, as a result of advances that have been made in digital compression technology-- particularly the difficult area of image compression. Multimedia online services are obtainable through telephone/computer or television links,
Technological FrontierTechnological Frontier America has been a country full of optimism, perseverance, and freedom of ideas and beliefs. The frontier- a mental or physical area where much remains to be done- is a belief that has and still propels and influences America today. The technological frontier is probably the most influenced by the frontier belief. There is always room for better in technology. The technological advancements in the past 50 years outnumber the amount advancements from the beginning of time u
Telecommunications & Networking ReportTelecommunications & Networking Report 1. 23-Sep-99: “Free Web Services Challenge AOL’s Dominance” - Internet business analysts generally are not yet convinced of the viability of the free web service business model for bring profitable. None-the-less, most agree that the free access will probably take a significant chunk of AOL’s market share before running out of investor’s money. 2. 23-Sep-99: “Visitalk.com Builds White Pages for Web Phone Calls” - Visitalk.com has unveiled plans to simplify
The New InternetThe New Internet Without a doubt, the Internet is undergoing a major transition as it experiences a tremendous influx of new users. Due to the anarchic, distributed nature of the net, we cannot even begin to enumerate the population of the Internet or its growth. As more of the world\'s population moves on-line, new concerns will arise which did not confront the earlier generations. The new culture will demand different resources, services and technology than the old generations expected and use
Campaign FundingCampaign Funding Campaign Funding By: Matt E-mail: email@example.com What We Don’t Know About Campaign Finance Does Hurt Us. “No matter what your social issue, if you want to solve it get the money out of politics. Only then will lawmakers vote for their people rather than their pocketbooks.” Jack E. Lohman. Money corrupts politics, and when contributions are being made to candidates it is not in the best interest of the American people. Campaign Finance is out of control in today’s political r
Computer Crime: The Crime of the FutureComputer Crime: The Crime of the Future English II 6 April 1996 Explosive growth in the computer industry over the last decade has made new technologies cheaper and simpler for the average person to own. As a result, computers play an intricate part in our daily lives. The areas in which computers affect life are infinite, ranging from entertainment to finances. If anything were to happen to these precious devices, the world would be chaotic. There is a type of person that thrives on chaos, that
Oprah WinfreyOprah Winfrey OPRAH GAIL WINFREY Oprah Gail Winfrey was born on January 29, 1954 on a farm in Kosciusko, Mississippi to Vernita Lee and Vernon Winfrey. Her parents originally planned to name her Orpah, but the midwife made a mistake on the birth certificate. Up until the age of 6 Oprah lived with her grandmother. After this Oprah went to live with her mother and two half brothers in Milwaukee. Instead of living on a farm she now lived in the ghetto. While Oprah was living with her mother who gav
The InternetThe Internet Where would we find ourselves without the Web today? It provides us with a vast amount of information and communication. The world is accessible to us with a click of a button. Maps, stocks, chat and news can all be found in a matter of seconds. Things have greatly evolved from the home PC of the 1980’s - Commodore 64’s and IBM 8088’s, and a life of direct dialing into BBSs at all hours of the night. Every small town of the USA has Internet access; the world is interconnected. Upon
Animal Testing: Testing....1....2...3Animal Testing: Testing....1....2...3 Tatum Szymczak Eng. 105 It is a dark stormy night when suddenly the phone rings. I casually answer the telephone. It is my older sister informing me that our mother is in the hospital. She is going to need an emergency brain transplant. It takes me just a moment to drop everything I am doing and rush to the hospital. When I arrive I see my father and sister in the waiting room casually enjoying their conversation. I am amazed they could have such high spirit
Animal TestingAnimal Testing Tatum Szymczak Eng. 105 Testing...1...2...3 It is a dark stormy night when suddenly the phone rings. I casually answer the telephone. It is my older sister informing me that our mother is in the hospital. She is going to need an emergency brain transplant. It takes me just a moment to drop everything I am doing and rush to the hospital. When I arrive I see my father and sister in the waiting room casually enjoying their conversation. I am amazed they could have such high spirits a
Humans Soon to be Extinct... Say it ain't so!!Humans Soon to be Extinct... Say it ain\'t so!! by Ryan Shoquist English 121 Dr. Gilliard November 23, 1996 Table of Contents Abstract.....................................page Body.........................................pages Bibliography.................................page Appendix.....................................pages Structured List.........................page Figures.................................page Figures.................................page Figures..............................
Same Sex MarriagesSame Sex Marriages There are so many factors that may affect one\'s view of this topic it becomes easy to see why it is controversial. To list all of the arguments would be impossible. However, by focusing on the main topics that both that both defend and disagree with the issue, we are able to get a brief glance at the enormity that the outcome of a problem like this carries in our society. Right from the beginning the bible states that it was not good for man to be alone; “therefore shall a ma
Saddam, Iraq, And The Gulf WarSaddam, Iraq, And The Gulf War War, justifiable or not, is complete madness. It is hell. No matter what the cause, or what the reason is, war remains mankind’s greatest source of tragedy, the plague of mankind, and the plague of this country. Our country has existed for only 200 years, a relatively short time, and already we have been involved in over eleven major wars. Four have been fought this last fifty years. We are a nation of freedom, but we are also a nation of strong military presence.
Tactics During The Revolutionary WarTactics During The Revolutionary War Eric Heppen Period 7 AP American History February 1,2000 The American Tactics of the Revolutionary War Biography and Footnotes _________ Research ___________ Critical Analysis ___________ Historical Interpretation ___________ Technical ___________ Content ___________ Originality ___________ Style of writing ___________ Prove thesis ___________ Eric Heppen American History Term Paper December 13, 1999 Period 7 The American Tactics of the Revolutionary War Most
WHAT MADE THE AMERICANS EXPAND WESTWARD?WHAT MADE THE AMERICANS EXPAND WESTWARD? After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, a large amount of land west of the original 13 states and the Northwest Territory was acquired. The open land, additional benefits and other existing problems encouraged Americans to expand westward. The American people began to realize that the future of the country lay in the development of its own western resources. There were many reasons that made the people face the grueling and dangerous movement west, but the
North American Free Trade Agreement: NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement: NAFTA Introduction I believe that the North American Free Trade Agreement was an inevitable step in the evolution of the United States economic policy. The globilization of the world economy due to technological advances in computers and communications have shrunk the world to the point where no single country acting alone can effectively compete on the foreign market. Even the United States, with its vast resources, can not have an absolute advantage in all
Collection of Works, OriginalCollection of Works, Original Collected Works, Vol. 1 The Collected Works of Nicholas Cottrell Disclaimer and Copyright Notice: All works within are copyrighted to Nicholas Cottrell, hereafter known as the author. Unauthorized copying is prohibited. Each reader is authorized to make five (5) copies and distribute them in any manner as long as profit is not gained. This contains subject matter that you may find disturbing or inappropriate. Please do not read it if you think you may become offen
Ernest Hemingway - An American ContemporaryErnest Hemingway - An American Contemporary Jason Milford April 2000 Ernest Hemingway Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American novelist, journalist, writer of short stories, and winner of the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature. He created a distinguished body of prose fiction, much of it based on adventurous life. He was born on July 21, 1899, the second of six children, in Oak Park, Ill., in a house built by his widowed grandfather, Ernest Hall. Oak Park was a Protestant, upper middle class suburb
Lenape & Inuit IndiansLenape Inuit Indians When comparing The Lenape and The Inuit tribes many similarities and differences can be found in almost all aspects of culture. The Lenape lived in homes called wigwams. Poles were bent to make the framework of the structure. The framework was then covered in animal hides. Usually one family would occupy an entire house. There was usually a fire pit in the center of the house and a hole in the roof was cut so the smoke could rise. Most Inuit families had a summer and a winte
Bay of Pigs and The Cuban Missile CrisisBay of Pigs and The Cuban Missile Crisis Global Connections 4/28/01 The United States government has had many dealings with Cuba. The most important of these were the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. In the first incident, the Bay of Pigs, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) planned to help Cuban exiles overthrow their dictator, Fidel Castro. Unfortunately, the plan failed in almost every way possible (Wiener, online). The second incident, the Cuban Missile Crisis, was the closest Ame
Immigrants and Crime: Immigrants and Crime: Out of the Melting Pot and into the Fire English 102.5 Research Project 1 Crime is inherent in our nature. When Eve took the bite of the apple it was the first sin, but whether in legend, religion or history, all evidence leads to the same thing: as long as there are laws or rules of any kind, there will be people to break them. As the saying goes, rules are meant to be broken. Crime has no limits whether in time or space, race or culture. It is the ultimate “given” in the
Marriage Essay Marriage Essay One of the biggest milestones in anyone’s life is a relationship commitment to another person. Marriage is more than co-exists with another person, it’s giving of yourself for the betterment of your partner. It has been explained to me that “it’s a 70/30 proposition, give 70% and hope for 30% back and if both people do that happiness will prevail”. Through my experiences with my Mother and Father during their differences, separation and eventual divorce and my Mother remarrying h
Gun Control: For a Safer SocietyGun Control: For a Safer Society “Each year in the United States, guns kill more than 35,000 people, a death rate much higher than in any other industrial nation. Approximately 70 percent of the murders in the United States in 1997 were committed using guns” (Zimring: Encarta Encyclopedia). Why are these stats so absurdly large? What is being done to bring these numbers down? “Gun control is regulating the use of firearms and their ownership to reduce violence,” says Franklin E. Zimring, a profe
The Columbine MassacreThe Columbine Massacre English Period 6 4/3/04 Extra Credit On April 20, 1999 two teenagers entered their newly revamped Littleton, Colorado high school armed to the tee with shotguns, a Tec-D9, a Carbine assault rifle, and dozens of home-made bombs. With minds full of hate, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold engaged in the most deadly U.S school shooting of all time. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were two kids with normal troubles. They weren’t accepted by most students. Jocks would tease them and t
The Chicagotribune.com case The Chicagotribune.com case 4/4/04 Business Policy What is chicagotribunes.com’s business model? Does its business model seem well matched to industry conditions and the Tribune Company’s resource strengths and competitive strengths? Is the business model capable of earning a respectable profits? The business model for the Chicagotribune.com is a great one in fact it has made them an innovator in the internet news industry. They do this by always staying on top of the ever-changing internet com
“On the day they were going to kill Santiago Nasar“On the day they were going to kill Santiago Nasar…” Litera2 A. Historical Context The book “Chronicle of a Death Foretold” was written by 1982 Nobel Prize Winner for Literature, Gabriel García Márquez, and was translated from Spanish by Gregory Rabassa. Editorial La Oveja Negra Ltda, Bogotá, originally published Chronicle of a Death Foretold in Columbia as Crónica de una muerte anunciada in December 1981. Jonathan Cape Ltd., London, also originally published the book in English in Great Britain
Dell – New Horizons Dell – New Horizons I Introduction and scope of work............................................................................................. 3 I.1 Introduction................................................................................................................... 3 I.2 Scope of Work.............................................................................................................. 3 II Marketing mix.......................................................................
Napster: The End or the Beginning Napster: The End or the Beginning As technology continues to grow and progress into the 21st century, the entire general public must adapt and participate. Napster, Morpheus, Kazaa, Audio Galaxy, Gnutella, and companies like those listed previous have become revolutionary icons in the Internet music-era (public enemy #1 in some eyes). The primary focus of all the companies is Napster. They were the first to take the heat, and essentially set the precedent for all other companies to follow. The