Mexican Geography


Today the Mexican agriculture is in transition. This sector that was stagnant over the past two and a half decades, has become the subject of government initiatives aimed at its modernization within a larger national context of economic reform. This essay will look at the challenges of the agricultural sector and state its new role in the Mexicans economy. The Mexico agricultural system exports fruits and vegetables, beer and tequila, seafood and cattle, and imports grains, oilseeds and animal products, some of these products will be discussed also.
First off the Mexican government has started to promote exports in their country and has been trying to make agriculture competitive. This has developed new programs for financing agriculture and capitalizing the sector. The government has been also trying to protect the country’s natural resources and trying to promote alternatives in farming. In new sweeping changes the Mexico government has deregulated markets, lowered internal trade barriers, and eliminated red tape for investors and government intervention. All of this has added to the economy of Mexico and improved the agriculture system from decades ago. Mexico has 39 million hectares suitable for forests, 125 million hectares suitable for cattle raising, 30 million hectares suitable for crops and 10 million hectares of irrigated arable land, which add to promote this country for future use in this industry. These points are positive for Mexico for future economic benefit and agricultural improvements.
Mexico is one of the world’s largest exporters of fruits and vegetables, with value of exports representing 20 percent of the 6.14 billion-dollar world trade. The country currently holds one of the top places in the worldwide fruit production and has low production costs. The North American market absorbs 90 percent of total Mexican fruit and vegetable exports, which in 1990, amounted to approximately $990 million dollars (U.S.). Tomatoes are the principal vegetable produced and exported, with production added to 3 percent of the total agricultural output. Tomatoes account for 31.8 percent of vegetable exports. Mexico ranks second in the world tomato market.
The recent privatization of sugar mills in Mexico has made the national sugar industry a competitive activity. The new pricing system, including sliding tariff scale, has created a horizon for price stability and protests the industry for international market. The tabacco and coffee sector is very popular and a very big industry in Mexico. The Mexican coffee industry ranks fourth in the world.
Beef is a very important product in the producing sector of the Mexican economy. The beef industry is on the growth with a 9 percent increase every year for the last 6 years. Pork production is another major livestock industry. In 1991, 28 percent of Mexico’s total meat came from pork. Pork is the most ate meat in Mexico, with a 5 percent increase in pork production between 1990-1991. Sales of pork products, such as sausage and cold meats have increased as they make up an important part of the average Mexican’s diet.
The strengths of the Mexican agricultural system is the fruit and vegetables production are up to world class standards and Mexico has different types of climates which allow to produce almost any kind of agricultural product. They also have a large fishery potential due to the vast coastline. The weaknesses of the Mexican agricultural system is lack of modern technology, lack of local manufacturing in equipment and lack of capabilities of new product development. The flower industry has been a new economic activity, which has grown in the years. The value of flower exports has grown from 1 billion dollars in 1982 to 25 million dollars in 1989. The exports to the major markets consist of mainly of carnations and roses.
“Research in Mexico in the 1950’s and 1960’s led to the development of the high yielding varieties of wheat and rice that launched the Green Revolution”. The reason for these high yielding varieties and its success was because of water, fertilizers, machinery and availability to it. The farmers in Mexico that had access to this progressed, also with the help of access to water and transport. This can help produced food and security for a very increasing population in Mexico. Fertilizer use is up in Mexico from just around