As you may already know Mercury is the first planet .
Which makes it the closest to the sun. It is 57,900,000km (
36,000,000mi.) Because Mercury is so close to the sun it has
extreme temperature differences. Mercury’s surface
temperatures range from -180*C to 450*C (-290*F to 840*F).
Temperatures that hot can melt iron, and other metals. The
dramatic temperature difference on Mercury are not only
because it is so close to the sun but, also by Mercury’s surface
features. The places that are the coldest on Mercury and at
the bottom of the craters and basins. The hottest are the
places closest to the sun. The temperature of the side that is
farthest away from the sun is allot warmer than scientists
thought it would be. Not a whole side but parts of Mercury have
never been in sunlight before. This is why scientists thought it
would be colder than it really was.
Mercury’s surface is much like the moon, they are very
colse to being the same size. It has many craters, high multiple
ring basins, and many lava flows. They have their similarities and
differences. Mercury’s diameter is 4,900 miles wide. Mercury’s
largest feature is the Caloris Basin. The Caloris basin is 1,300 Km
(800 MI). in diameter. The Caloris Basins floor is full of cliffs
and ridges. As you progress to the bottom the cliffs and ledges
increase in size. The Caloris Basin was created when it was
bombarded with meteorites. The Caloris basin was created by a
meteorite that could of been up to 100 km. When the large
meteorite hit Mercury it sent shocks through it which produced
jumbled hills on the opposite side of Mercury. This process as
known as The Caloris Impact. The lava flowed into craters and
basins which filled holes and cracks that smoothed out their
Like Earth, Mercury has 3 main layers. The Earth’s being
the crust, mantle, and core. Earth’s core is made up of molten
rock AKA lava. Liquid cores create a magnetic field. Mercury’s
three layers are a rocky silicate crust, solid rocky silicate mantle,
and a hot liquid iorn-nickle core. The core makes up 75% of its
diameter. Scientists did not think that is was possible for the
core to be liquid because over the years mercury’s rotation has
slowed down dramatically. They thought that it would of been
hardened by now. Planets that have a magnetic field that are
generated by the rotation of a conductive molten core such as
that of Earth and mercury are known as “The Dynamo Effect”.
Mercury’s rotation period is 59 earth days long. That is
how long it takes it to rotate once on it’s axis. It used to be
much faster but over the years it has slowed dramatically.
Mercury’s speed in orbit is 107,400 mph. Mercury got its name
from a messenger if the Greek gods. He was very fast because
he had wings on his feet. Mercury used to be the fastest planet
in our solar system. Mercury’s revolution period is 88 earth days.
That is one year to them. Mercury’s mass is 0.055 (that of
Earth’s), density is 5.44 grams per cubic cm.
Mercury’s atmosphere is 42% helium, 42% sodium, 15%
oxygen, and 1% is of other gases.


Category: Science