Magnatism & the Things We THINK We Know About It!


By Austin D. Ritchie

Magnatism is a wonderous natural phenomanon. Since days before
scientific discoveries were even written down the world has been playing with
the theories of magnatism. In these three labs we delt with some of the same
ideas which have pondered over for long before any of us were around. In these
conclusions we will take a look at these ideas and find out what exactly we have
learned.
To understand the results of the lab we must first go over the facts
about magnatism on the atomic level that we have discovered. The way magnatism
works is this: magnatism is all based on the simple principle of electrons and
there behavior. Electrons move around the atom in a specific path. As they do
this they are also rotating on there own axis. This movement causes an
attraction or repultion from the electrons that are unpaird. They are moving in
two directions though causing a negative and positive charge. In the case of
magnatism though we find that these elements have a lot of unpaired electrons,
in the case of iron, Fe, there are four. What happens then in the case of a
natural magnet the unpaired electrons line up or the magnet in a specific mannor.
That is all the atoms with unpaired electrons moving in a direction which
causes a certain charge are lined up on one side and all the atoms with the
opposite charge move to the other side. The atoms then start to cancel each
other out as they approach the center of the magnet. This all happens at the
currie point where these atoms are free to move and then when cooled and the
metel becomes solid the atoms can no longer move (barely) causing a "permanent"
magnet (as in the diagram on the next page). This same principle can be applied
to a piece of metal that has been sitting next to a magnatized piece of metel in
that over the long time they are togather the very slow moving atoms in the
metal situate in the same fassion also creating a magnet. Now that we know the
basics lets begin with the experiments.
Part one of the lab started us on our journey. In this part we took an
apparatus with wire wrapped around it put a compass in the middle of the wire
wraps. The setup was arranged so that the wraps were running parralel with the
magnetic field of the earth, that is they were north-south. With this setup we
were able to force a current through the coils of the apparatus by means of a 6V
battery and this created a magnetic field. This is because the movement of
electrons (which electrisity is) causes the presents of a magnetic field. Now
that we know we have a magnetic field running around the compass we cbegan the
experiment. What we did was take the magnetic field of the coils begining with
one coil and continued until we had five. What we learned from this is that
with every extra coil we placed around the compass the motion that the
interaction of the two magnetic fields caused increased. These magnetic feilds
being the earth\'s and the coils. What this means is that not only does
electicity create a magnetic field but that there is a direct relationship
between the amount of current and the strength of the magnetic field it creates.
This leads us to the relationship: Bc µ I and then by figuring in the constant
we find that we can derive our first equation Bc = k I. This can also be
supported by the data we collected in the lab when we see that as the measured
currents went up the amount of motion went up which mathmaticly indicates that
the magnetic field strength went up.
But we don\'t only find this equation but we also find that as the
current (or more so the magnetic field it creates) acts upon the initial
magnetic field of the earth we get the motion in the compass. This leads us to
the first part of our left hand rule. The left hand rule for a straight
conductor says that when the lines of flux are created they repel from the north
end of the compass in a certain direction (depending on which way the charge is
moving). This can be explained by our experiment\'s data in part one also
because as we introduced the current to the earth\'s magnetic