Machiavelli\'s View of Human Nature

In The Prince Niccolo Machiavelli presents a view of governing a state that is
drastically different from that of humanists of his time. Machiavelli believes
the ruling Prince should be the sole authority determining every aspect of the
state and put in effect a policy which would serve his best interests. These
interests were gaining, maintaining, and expanding his political power.1 His
understanding of human nature was a complete contradiction of what humanists
believed and taught. Machiavelli strongly promoted a secular society and felt
morality was not necessary but in fact stood in the way of an effectively
governed principality.2 Though in come cases Machiavelli\'s suggestions seem
harsh and immoral one must remember that these views were derived out of concern
Italy\'s unstable political condition.3

Though humanists of Machiavelli\'s time believed that an individual had much to
offer to the well being of the state, Machiavelli was quick to mock human nature.
Humanists believed that "An individual only \'grows to maturity- both
intellectually and morally-through participation\' in the life of the state."4
Machiavelli generally distrusted citizens, stating that " time of adversity,
when the state is in need of it\'s citizens there are few to be found."5
Machiavelli further goes on to question the loyalty of the citizens and advises
the Prince that "...because men a wretched creatures who would not keep their
word to you, you need keep your word to them."6 However, Machiavelli did not
feel that a Prince should mistreat the citizens. This suggestion once again to
serve the Prince\'s best interests.

If a prince can not be both feared and loved, Machiavelli suggests, it would be
better for him to be feared bey the citizens within his own principality. He
makes the generalization that men are, "...ungrateful, fickle, liars, and
deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit; while you treat them well
they are yours."7 He characterizes men as being self centered and not willing
to act in the best interest of the state,"[and when the prince] is in danger
they turn against [him]."8 Machiavelli reinforces the prince\'s need to be
feared by stating:

Men worry less about doing an injury to one who makes himself loved than to
one who makes
himself feared. The bond of love is one which men, wretched creatures they
are, break
when it is to their advantage to do so; but fear is strengthened by a dread of
which is always effective.9

In order to win honor, Machaivelli suggests that a prince must be readily
willing to deceive the citizens. One way is to " his esteem for talent
actively encouraging the able and honouring those who excel in their that they can go peaceably about their business."10 By
encouraging citizens to excel at their professions he would also be encouraging
them to "...increase the prosperity of the their state."11 These measures,
though carried out in deception, would bring the prince honor and trust amongst
the citizens, especially those who were in the best positions to oppose him.

Machiavelli postulates that a prince must also deceive those who attempt to
flatter him.

[In] choosing wise men for his government and allowing those the freedom to
speak the
truth to him, and then only concerning matters on which he asks their opinion,
and nothing
else. But he should also question them toughly and listen to what they say;
then he
should make up his own mind.12

Since each person will only advice the prince in accord to his own interests,
the prince must act on his own accord. Machiavelli discourages action to taken
otherwise "...since men will always do badly by [the prince] unless they are
forced to be virtuous."13 Machiavelli actively promoted a secular form of
politics. He laid aside the Medieval conception "of the state as a necessary
creation for humankinds spiritual, material, and social well-being."14 In such
a state,"[a] ruler was justified in his exercise of political power only if it
contributed to the common good of the people he served, [and] the ethical side
of a princes activity...ought to [be] based on Christian moral principles...."15
Machiavelli believed a secular form of government to be a more realistic type.
His views were to the benefit of the prince, in helping him maintain power
rather than to serve to the well being of the citizens. Machiavelli promoted
his belief by stating:

The fact is that a man who wants to act virtuously in every way necessarily
comes to grief
among those who are not virtuous. Therefore, if a prince wants to maintain
his rule he
must learn not to