LYNDON B JOHNSON

Johnson was born on Aug. 27, 1908, near Johnson City, Tex., the
eldest son of Sam Ealy Johnson, Jr., and Rebekah Baines Johnson. His
father, a struggling farmer and cattle speculator in the hill country
of Texas, provided only an uncertain income for his family.
Politically active, Sam Johnson served five terms in the Texas
legislature. His mother had varied cultural interests and placed high
value on education; she was fiercely ambitious for her children.
Johnson attended public schools in Johnson City and received a B.S.
degree from Southwest Texas State Teachers College in San Marcos. He
then taught for a year in Houston before going to Washington in 1931 as
secretary to a Democratic Texas congressman, Richard M. Kleberg.
During the next 4 years Johnson developed a wide network of political
contacts in Washington, D.C. On Nov. 17, 1934, he married Claudia
Alta Taylor, known as "Lady Bird." A warm, intelligent, ambitious
woman, she was a great asset to Johnson\'s career. They had two
daughters, Lynda Byrd, born in 1944, and Luci Baines, born in 1947. In
1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt entered the White House. Johnson greatly
admired the president, who named him, at age 27, to head the National
Youth Administration in Texas. This job, which Johnson held from 1935
to 1937, entailed helping young people obtain employment and schooling.
It confirmed Johnson\'s faith in the positive potential of government
and won for him a group of supporters in Texas.

In 1937, Johnson sought and won a Texas seat in Congress, where he
championed public works, reclamation, and public power programs. When
war came to Europe he backed Roosevelt\'s efforts to aid the Allies.
During World War II he served a brief tour of active duty with the U.S.
Navy in the Pacific (1941-42) but returned to Capitol Hill when
Roosevelt recalled members of Congress from active duty. Johnson
continued to support Roosevelt\'s military and foreign-policy programs.
During the 1940s, Johnson and his wife developed profitable business
ventures, including a radio station, in Texas. In 1948 he ran for the
U.S. Senate, winning the Democratic party primary by only 87 votes.
(This was his second try; in 1941 he had run for the Senate and lost to
a conservative opponent.) The opposition accused him of fraud and
tagged him "Landslide Lyndon." Although challenged, unsuccessfully, in
the courts, he took office in 1949.

Senator and Vice-President.
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Johnson moved quickly into the Senate hierarchy. In 1953 he won
the job of Senate Democratic leader. The next year he was easily
re-elected as senator and returned to Washington as majority leader, a
post he held for the next 6 years despite a serious heart attack in
1955. The Texan proved to be a shrewd, skillful Senate leader. A
consistent opponent of civil rights legislation until 1957, he
developed excellent personal relationships with powerful conservative
Southerners. A hard worker, he impressed colleagues with his attention
to the details of legislation and his willingness to compromise.

In the late 1950s, Johnson began to think seriously of running for
the presidency in 1960. His record had been fairly conservative,
however. Many Democratic liberals resented his friendly association
with the Republican president, Dwight D. Eisenhower; others considered
him a tool of wealthy Southwestern gas and oil interests. Either to
soften this image as a conservative or in response to inner conviction,
Johnson moved slightly to the left on some domestic issues, especially
on civil rights laws, which he supported in 1957 and 1960. Although
these laws proved ineffective, Johnson had demonstrated that he was a
very resourceful Senate leader.

To many northern Democrats, however, Johnson remained a sectional
candidate. The presidential nomination of 1960 went to Senator John F.
Kennedy of Massachusetts. Kennedy, a northern Roman Catholic, then
selected Johnson as his running mate to balance the Democratic ticket.
In November 1960 the Democrats defeated the Republican candidates,
Richard M. Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, by a narrow margin. Johnson
was appointed by Kennedy to head the President\'s Committee on Equal
Employment Opportunities, a post that enabled him to work on behalf of
blacks and other minorities. As vice-president, he also undertook some
missions abroad, which offered him some limited insights into
international problems.

Presidency
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The assassination of