Leukemia is named after the Leukocytes, white blood cells that mutate and become cancerous before maturity. These cells reproduce rapidly, slowing down the production of white blood cells that are important in the fight against infection in the body. Leukemia also slows down the production of red blood cells that are needed to carry oxygen in the blood. Cancer cell may spread to the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, genitals, or the brain, leukemia is incurable and is the second leading cause of death for children ages 2-15 (Kagan 35). There are eight causes, five symptoms, and ten treatments for leukemia.

There are eight causes for the cancer leukemia. The first cause of leukemia is population mixing. The most common cause for leukemia in children is population mixing. Studies have repeatedly shown of several such circumstances and might explain the excess cases seen in large remote nuclear installations. The pattern of infections encountered by children mixing with their new peers may be different in such situations and could provide an extra challenge to their immune systems (Lilleyman 32)

The second cause of leukemia is seeds sown from birth. From studies of leukemia arising in identical twins leukemia may have seeds sown from birth. The disease is not inherited rather it seems that in rare instances a defect can occur in lymphocytes located in the fetus and is directly or indirectly related to the rise of leukemia in children. If one twin develops leukemia there is an increased risk of the other child doing the same (Lilleyman 33)

The third cause of leukemia is environmental radiation. Observed clusters of cases around nuclear installations have caused huge concern. While there is no doubt


that large doses of radiation can cause leukemia, the unusual circumstances where this is know to happen are irrelevant to virtually all cases in child hood (Lilleyman 33).

The fourth cause of leukemia is viruses leading to the disease. Viruses certainly cause leukemia in cats and other animal species. A rare leukemia related cancer seen in Japan and the Caribbean is known to be due from a virus as the same family of HIV. Despite a vigorous search, none have been implicated so far in childhood leukemia (Lilleyman 34).

The fifth cause of leukemia is electric magnetic fields. Why there might be an excess chance of adults developing leukemia if they live near pylons carrying high voltage national grid power cables or near to electricity substations is not clear, but the suggestion was made by some studies searching for new causes of leukemia. The theory has not been substantiated and has little credibility at the present time (Lilleyman 34).

The sixth cause of leukemia is toxic and agricultural chemicals being released into the air. There may be a connection between toxic chemicals with aplastic anemia. Some anti caner drugs can indirectly cause a type of AML, but leukemia actually occurring from these drugs is very infrequent and thankfully only occurs in a very small number of children. (Lilleyman 34)

The seventh cause of leukemia is thought to be genetics. Some people can be genetically pre-disposed to leukemia. Chromosome abnormalities are associated with a pre leukiemic disease called myelodysplasia. Nine out of ten people with leukemia, for example, have an abnormal chromosome called the Philadelphia Chromosome in their

blood cells. This chromosome is an acquired abnormality; it is neither inherited nor


handed down to one’s children, instead this abnormality is slowly developed over time.

(Lilleyman 35)

The eighth cause for leukemia is environmental factors such as smoking. Environmental seem to influence leukemia once the risk of developing a leukemia. Tobacco smokers are more prone to certain leukemia’s than none smokers. Research also suggests that prolong exposure to radiation, various chemicals in home and work environments, and low frequency electromagnetic fields may be associated with leukemia, but there is no definite proof (Lilleyman 36).

There are five symptoms known for leukemia. The first symptom of leukemia is extreme fatigue. Just because someone gets a little bit tired and cranky, does not mean that they have leukemia. This kind of fatigue will affect the patient in every aspect of life. For example, the patient might be walking to his car and all of a sudden feel like he is going to collapse, or