This essay Language has a total of 559 words and 4 pages.
Language is an abstract concept which is acquired early in life by the vast majority of children through an intricate process. There are many different theories concerning the acquisition of language that have been considered, and these are constantly being refined, along with the technology which enables researchers to further investigate the process. Bilingualism has also been a complex area of interest which has elicited various theoretical viewpoints.
There are various aspects which are true to every language. These include: phonology, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics. The phonology of a language includes a set of phonemes: the different sounds, and the rules governing the combination of these sounds which can be found within the language. The semantics involved in a language deals with the meanings of the sentences, words, and grammatical markers (morphemes) in the language. The syntax concerns the rules about organizing the morphemes into sentences, and pragmatics are the communication skills involved in the use of the language (Shaffer, 1999, p.352-353). These are merely the basics required for language acquisition. Knowledge of the nature of communication, in addition to the fashion in which the language is acquired are also integral.
The acquisition of a language has instigated a controversy regarding the process through which it is acquired. The empiricist perspective, inspired by B. F. Skinner in 1957, states that children learn language by imitating caregivers who model and reinforce their speech (Shaffer, 1999, p.355). Also during the 1950\'s, Noam Chomsky hypothesized that languages are too complex to be learned by imitation (Shaffer, 1999, p.356 & Brownlee, 1998, p.48). Therefore, humans are born with a "language acquisition device" (Shaffer, 1999, p.356 & Brownlee, 1998, p.53) and a "universal grammar" (Brownlee, 1998, p.48) which predisposes them to the ability to learn languages and apply the grammatical rules to the languages which they hear.
The large interest in the area of language has been elicited as a result of the intricacy of the acquisition process of a language, and the fact that all children appear to have the ability to acquire and understand such an abstract concept. The study of language, as the study of any subject, is an ongoing process, as illustrated by various researchers over the years. These studies have evolved form mere theoretical statements about language to involved studies which have caused the previous hypotheses to be rejected. This is largely due to the evolution of related technology which has facilitated research in the area.
Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind.
Child Development, 70 (3), 636-644.
Blakeslee, S. (1997, July 15). When an adult adds a language, it\'s one brain, two systems.
The New York Times, C4.
Bower, B. (1997, July 12). Brain shows signs of two bilingual roads. Science News, 152,
Brain\'s singular way with language. (1995, April 1). Science News, 147, 202.
Brownlee, S. (1998, June 15). Baby talk. U.S. News & World Report, 124 (23), 48-55.
Chatterjee, C. (1997, November/December). Are bilinguals of two minds? Psychology
Today, 30, 9.
Hart, B & Risley, T. (1992). American parenting of language-learning children:
Persisting differences in family-child interactions observed in natural home
environments. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1096-1105.
Shaffer, D. (1999). Developmental Psychology (5th ed.). United States: Brooks/Cole
Topics Related to Language
Language acquisition, Linguistics, Cognitive science, Bilingualism, Applied linguistics, Language, Neuroscience of multilingualism, Child development, Universal grammar, Critical period hypothesis, Psycholinguistics
Essays Related to Language
Company Insights on BPCompany Insights on BP On August 30, we all chose 5 stocks to evaluate before purchasing. At this time I chose BP AMOCO, Microsoft, Western Digital, Toys-R-Us, and Fortune Financial Incorporated. After a few weeks of tracking these stocks, I chose to keep BP AMOCO, Microsoft, and Western Digital, because the stocks were relatively stable and most of them were on the rise at this time. As you are aware, we were given $30,000.00 to invest in our three chosen stocks, which breaks down to $10,000.00
Marketing NotesChapter 1 - Marketing In a ChangingMarketing NotesChapter 1 - Marketing In a Changing WorldWhat is marketing?- Creating customer value and stratification are at the very heart of modernmarketing thinking and practice.Market Defined- Markets always focus at satisfying customers needs- Marketing: A social and managerial process by which individuals and groupsobtain what they need and want through creating exchanging products and valuewith others.- Needs: States of felt deprivation- Wants: Are the form taken by human needs as they a
Purchasing A Small BusinessPurchasing A Small Business Purchasing a Small Business Outline I. Deciding to buy A. Why buy a small business? B. Starting out-the nine steps C. Initial details to consider 1. Are partners needed? 2. Economic factors 3. Is the location acceptable? 4. Tax strategy II. Where to start A. How much income is needed? B. The Thirteen Steps to acquiring a business III. Locating a potential purchase A. The Acquisition Plan B. Beginning the search-who can help? III. Negotiating a purchase price A. Valuat
Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These famous lines of the Declaration of Independence was written in the front parlor of a second floor rented apartment by the American, Thomas Jefferson. These few words show what ideas and beliefs Thomas Jefferson stood for, and how he continuously fought for these words to become fulfilled in hi
Computers: Nonverbal CommunicationsComputers: Nonverbal Communications CHAPTER 1: Rationale and Literature Review Magnafix says, Have you figured out the secret entrance to Kahn Draxen\'s castle? Newtrik sighs deeply. Newtrik says, I think so, but I haven\'t found the stone key yet! Magnafix grins mischievously. Magnafix gives a stone key to Newtrik. Newtrik smiles happily. Newtrik shakes hands with Magnafix. Newtrik says, Thanks! Magnafix grins broadly and says, No problem... Newtrik leaves west. Introduction Purpose The
DyslexiaDyslexia General information Imagine if my report was written like this: Dyslexia is wehn yuor midn gets wodrs mixde pu. If you were dyslexic, that\'s how you might read my report. The word dyslexia is derived from the Greek “dys” (meaning poor or inadequate) and “lexis” (word or language). Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by problems in expressive or receptive, oral or written language. It is characterized by extreme difficulty learning and remembering letters, written or spoken
The History of the Internet and the WWWThe History of the Internet and the WWW 1. The History of the World Wide Web- The internet started out as an information resource for the government so that they could talk to each other. They called it The Industrucable Network because it was so many computers linked to gether that if one server went down, no-one would know. This report will mainly focus on the history of the World Wide Web (WWW) because it is the fastest growing resource on the internet. The internet consists of diferent pro
How Is Helium Produced?How Is Helium Produced? Production: Although Helium is one of the most common elements in the universe it is a rare gas on earth. It exists in the atmosphere in such small quantities (less than five parts per million) that recovering it from the air is uneconomical. Helium is produced as a by-product of the refining of natural gas, which is carried out on a commercial scale in the USA and Poland. In these areas natural gas contains a relatively high concentration of Helium which has accumulate
What Drives A ManWhat Drives A Man What makes a successful man? This, in itself, is a culture bound question because it can vary from culture to culture. However, in the perception of Okonkwo, the main character in Chinua Achebe\'s novel, Things Fall Apart, the measure of a man\'s success is based on two elements, material acquisition and growth, and physical prowess. This is ironic for Okonkwo since his people\'s typical idea of success seems to be constructed of a complex, strong spiritual culture, seemingly a
The Power of LanguageThe Power of Language Bob Jones 11-19-96 period 3 Mrs. Fox Of all possible human qualities, the one that wields the most power is the ability to use, understand and communicate effectively through language. A proficient use of language allows us to clearly communicate an exact idea from one person to another person or group of people. This precise science of being able to convey exactly what you want equates to the acquisition of power. An important link between language and power is persuasion.
Oral Language DevelopementOral Language Developement Children develop oral language at a very early age. Almost every sound a human being makes can be considered communication. As children grow up, they are constantly observing and practicing communication and oral language. What they know about oral language has an effect on the development of their literacy skills. “Students who had difficulty with early speech communication skills were believed to be at risk for reading…and consequently writing” (Montgomery, 1998). Th
An Analysis of The Term Actually Incurred In SectiAn Analysis of The Term Actually Incurred In Section 11(a) of Income Tax Action Act No 58 of 1962 A TECHNICAL REPORT TO BE PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BATCHELOR OF COMMERCE (HONOURS) DEGREE IN TAXATION BY PETER CRAWFORD STUDENT NO. CRWPET005 APRIL 1996 I certify that the report is my own work and all references used, are accurately recorded. 1.SYNOPSIS Generally Accepted Accounting Practice includes statement
Beloved and Don Quixote: Similarities in Themes anBeloved and Don Quixote: Similarities in Themes and Characters On reading Beloved by Toni Morrison and Don Quixote by Kathy Acker, there seem to be quite a few similarities in themes and characters contained in these texts, the most prevalent of which seems to be of love and language as a path to freedom. We see in Acker\'s Don Quixote the abortion she must have before she embarks on a quest for true freedom, which is to love. Similarly, in Morrison\'s Beloved, there is a kind abortion, the kill
Comparison of 'Beloved' by Toni Morrison and 'DonComparison of \'Beloved\' by Toni Morrison and \'Don Quixote\' by On reading Beloved by Toni Morrison and Don Quixote by Kathy Acker, there seem to be quite a few similarities in themes and characters contained in these texts, the most prevalent of which seems to be of love and language as a path to freedom. We see in Acker’s Don Quixote the abortion she must have before she embarks on a quest for true freedom, which is to love. Similarly, in Morrison’s Beloved, there is a kind abortion, the kil
LanguageLanguageLanguage is an abstract concept which is acquired early in life by the vast majority of children through an intricate process. There are many different theories concerning the acquisition of language that have been considered, and these are constantly being refined, along with the technology which enables researchers to further investigate the process. Bilingualism has also been a complex area of interest which has elicited various theoretical viewpoints. There are various aspects which
Theories Underlying the Constructivist ApproachTheories Underlying the Constructivist Approach Introduction According to Elliot Eisner: “teaching is an art and the creations of the teacher in producing an engaging stimulating and insightful lesson are the result of using many different skills but these are influenced by qualities and contingencies that are unpredictable’ but all teachers do operate with theory where theory is ‘a general set of ideas through which we make sense of the world” And according to Peel (1967): “psychology may be de
Wuthering HeightsWuthering Heights Plot Overview In the late winter months of 1801, a man named Lockwood rents a manor house called Thrushcross Grange in the isolated moor country of England. Here, he meets his dour landlord, Heathcliff, a wealthy man who lives in the ancient manor of Wuthering Heights, four miles away from the Grange. In this wild, stormy countryside, Lockwood asks his housekeeper, Nelly Dean, to tell him the story of Heathcliff and the strange denizens of Wuthering Heights. Nelly consents, and
How does John Fowles use particular landscapes andHow does John Fowles use particular landscapes and places to enhance and identify each character in ‘The French Lieutenants Woman’? John Fowles introduces the novel by giving an detailed description of the ‘Cobb’ in Lyme Regis. He introduces Sarah at this point, describing her as ‘a living memorial to the drowned’ ‘a figure from myth’. In this setting, we begin to form our own opinion of her character; solitary by choice and independent yet melancholy at the same time. We begin to associate Sara
Language AcquisitionLanguageAcquisition Essay One How to Teach Past and passive forms of gerunds and infinitives October 10, 2002 While teaching a language there are factors we take for granted. Sometimes we present a certain theme/structure to our ESL students without putting ourselves in their shoes, and assume that they have understood everything just because they did not have any questions. We tend to forget that sometimes confusion can be the barrier to curiosity that results in lack of questions from studen
Jean PlagetJean Plaget RUNNING HEAD: JEAN PIAGET Jean Piaget: One of the Most Famous Theorists of Cognitive Development SED 502 7/19/04 Jean Piaget: One of the Most Famous Theorists of Cognitive Development Introduction You just had a baby and you think the things it does are so amazing, and your baby is the only one that can do that. Then you talk to other new parents, and their babies are doing almost the same things as yours; some a little more, some a little less. Now your baby is a teenager, and you a
Children in-between: constructing identities in thChildren in-between: constructing identities in the bicultural family. March 1999 v5 i1 p13(1) While transnational movement and migrancy are not new fields of inquiry for anthropology, the experiences of children from inter-cultural marriage, as a part of these processes, have rarely been discussed. In this context, competing cultural ideas of childhood and child-raising are tackled in the intimacy of the domestic home and family life. Ethnographic evidence from families where there is a parent
SONY ENTERTAINMENTSONY ENTERTAINMENT 4-12-04 Sony Music Entertainment Inc. • Howard Stringer, CEO • Located in New York, NY • Sales for fiscal year 2003: $5.3 billion • Produces, manufactures, distributes and markets recorded music and entertainment in a wide range of formats, including video, CD, DVD, MD, Super Audio CD and via the Internet • Comprised of three divisions: Sony Music (domestic U.S.) Sony Music International (all countries outside of the U.S. and Japan) Sony Classical (the worldwide classical musi
Language AcquisitionLanguageAcquisitionLanguageAcquisitionLanguageacquisition is the process of learning a native or a second language. Although how children learn to speak is not perfectly understood, most explanations involve both the observation that children copy what they hear and the inference that human beings have a natural aptitude for understanding grammar. Children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, and grammar is seldom taught to them; that they rapi
The Innate Language PotentialThe Innate Language Potential or The Mind Imposes Order on the Chaos C.S.-0125 spring 2004 Some common ground and the attempt to define innateness. Human beings posses a unique ability to acquire, process and apply the underlying rules that govern language. Language in humans must be innate because the potential for language is innate, and, although this seems so obvious as to be inconsequential, it is crucial to recognize because there is something in us that perceives the environment around us
FamiliesFamilies Looking at lone parent families is like looking at a hologram picture: holding it one way you see one thing, holding it a other way, you see another thing. This can be profoundly disorienting. In order to avoid vertigo, I shall start by looking at the picture from different angles, turning it slowly, noting the shifting patterns. All of these angles are informed by the basic lens used here: what are meaningful concepts for social policy formation? It is dangerous to identify problems –
AitchisonAitchison It is to be noted that the nature versus nurture debate extends even into the realm of language. The notion that language is an acquisition attained through mere environmental influence seems lacking. However, to think that individuals attain language through biological means alone is erroneous, as well. There is a delicately interwoven union between learning and acquisition. Aitchison notes that there is an undeniable progression that carries normally developing children through the p
Bilingual EducationBilingual Education 1 English 101 19 December, 2002 The debate over bilingual education is nothing if not emotional. The two sides seem to be spurred on by political opinions from liberals and conservatives who want to further their own cause. In general terms, that cause, in relation to bilingual education for liberals is that diverse languages and customs enrich the U.S. cultural stew and should be allowed to flourish (Worsnap 6). Conservatives, on the other hand, believe that the mission of U
An Army, A Navy, and EbonicsAn Army, A Navy, and Ebonics CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. The Ebonics controversy 2.1 Declaration of a separate language 2.2 Bilingual education funding 2.3 Classroom teaching and Ebonics 2.4 Summary and comment 3. Afro-American languages and dialects 3.1 Black English: the creolist position 3.2 Black English: the dialectologist position 3.3 Toward a synthesis 3.4 On the issue of African influence 3.5 Summary and comment 4. Language, identity, and politics 4.1 Obtaining linguistic recognition 4.2
Nez PerceNez Perce The Nez Perce are located in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. The dress of both sexes was plain style, with the single exception of the fez-shaped basket-hats of the women. The usual material for clothing was deerskin, but the dresses of women were frequently of mountain-sheep skin. Houses were mat-covered lodges of the tipi form, or more commonly a development of this type in which material of several or many of these circular lodges were used to build a lodge, wedge-shaped com
The History of RasselasThe History of Rasselas In Chapter 1 of The History of Rasselas, the musicians exerted the power of harmony (p. 406) over the inhabitants of the Happy Valley. Samuel Johnson\'s use of the word power is interesting in this context. He presents the musicians as controlling the Abissinian princes and princesses through the use of music. The musician\'s power is the power to entertain and to divert his listeners. In this way, he can control their thoughts and keep them from being discontent and
GenieGenie Genie was called the wild child. This term was defined as a child who grows up in severe isolation. When Genie was one year of age, her father found out that Genie was going to be slightly slow. He felt this to be unacceptable and locked her in a room tied to a potty-chair for the fist ten years of her life. Her blind mother was seeking help for herself and Genie was with her. When the social worker saw the terrible condition Genie was in, she reported it immediately (class discussion).
BILINGUAL EDUCATIONBILINGUAL EDUCATION The word bilingual means the ability to speak or write two languages equally well. Thus, a system of bilingual education aims to make non-native speaking students maintain good linguistic abilities in both their native language and their second language. Bilingual education, mainly targeted either for students in the upper social economic group as in Egypt, or for immigrants as in the United States, allows these students to have good job opportunities. Yet, it lacks the abi
Procurement ManagementProcurement Management Overview: Despite some disagreement on the exact nature of the future of supply chain management development, it would appear inarguable that as corporations continue their preparations to enter the new millennium, the global environment will increasingly serve as a critical element in the value creation process of supply chain management. International trade will exceed $17 trillion by 2020. Global logistics represents nearly 20% of the world’s gross national product. A c
Sentiment Expression IndustrySentiment Expression Industry I love this business, exults Robert Kaynes Jr., vice president of sales (and grandson of the founder) at Bron Shoe, the Columbus, Ohio-based company responsible for putting millions of pairs of bronzed baby shoes on bookshelves in the homes of loving parents across America for the past 75 years. It may sound schmaltzy Kaynes concedes, but it\'s a schmaltzy business. We\'re selling sentiment. Still, how do you market a memory? For companies like Hallmark, FTD,
PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY THROUGH PARKS AND RECRPROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY THROUGH PARKS AND RECREATION The United States Department of Health and Human Services published the nation’s public health goals in a document called Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. The objectives give priorities to reducing coronary heart disease and obesity, increasing moderate and vigorous physical activity, reducing leisure-time physical inactivity, and increasing physical activities that maintain muscular strengt
Minnesota Iron Range DialectMinnesota Iron Range Dialect EngL 3851 Fall 1998 I am a Minnesotan. I have lived here all my life and may continue to do so. Stereotype me: The 10 o\'clock news is my window dressing for the 10 o\'clock weather (Mohr, 9). You betcha it is. Yah. I wouldn\'t want you to think that I\'m not happy here-it could be worse. Lutefisk. . . umm, my favorite. Are you close; is this representative of myself and most my fellow Minnesotans? Forgive us, but this is slightly, no this is completely ludicrous. Fo
First Language Acquisition AnalysisFirst LanguageAcquisition Analysis Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Facultad de Filosofìa y Letras Colegio de Lingüística Aplicada First LanguageAcquisition Analysis Lic. Blanca Elizondo Castaño Borrego Julio César Peña Martínez Alejandro Salazar Pèrez Dahlia Elena Ciudad Universitaria November 18th , 1998 Index Page Introduction Theoretical Frame 6 1. Methodology 9 2. Phonology 10 2.1 Simplification 10 2.1.1 Omission of Final Sound 10 2.1.2 Omission of Unstressed Syllable 10 2.1.3 Omission
The Effects of Bilingualism on Language DevelopmenThe Effects of Bilingualism on Language Development Christopher Perez Term Paper Life-Span Development, PSY 407 Instructor: Dr. Christina Rodriguez November 24, 1998 Abstract The effects of bilingualism on language development in children are examined. Theories suggest that bilingual children are able to learn a second language after the first is mastered. One of the reasons behind this is that the child has already developed the nonverbal concept of the word (because the child is already using
Magic of the MindMagic of the Mind PART ONE CONTENTS --------------------3 SELFREALISATION AND DIRECTION FOR THE ADOLESCENT PART TWO CONTENTS ---------------------59 MANIFESTATIONS OF AWARENESS PART THREE CONTENTS -----------------104 PHILOSOPHICAL CONTENTS PART ONE. BOLD = MAIN TITLES. REGULAR = SUB TITLES. ----------------------------------------------------------------PAGE FORWARD -----------------------------------------------------4 INTELLECTUALITY -----------------------------------------8 DEDICATION -----
Hong KongHong Kong July 1, 1997, a significant date for all people in Hong Kong and much of the Asian community. Hong Kong will be reverted to a powerful communist nation. Ironically, many of the world\'s communist countries are reverting to democratic governments. What will this date mean for, not only Southeast Asia, but for the rest of the world economic community, primarily the United States? Will Hong Kong still function, economically, as it does now or will power from People\'s Republic of China (C
AP Human Geography Outline AP Human Geography Outline Ch. 1 Thinking Geographically Key Issue 1: How do geographers describe where things are? Map- a two-dimensional model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it. Place- a specific point of Earth distinguished by a particular character. Region- an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features. Scale- the relationship between a map's distances and the actual distances on Earth. Space- the physical gap between two objects. Connect
Www.ccsenet.org/ies International Education Studie www.ccsenet.org/ies International Education Studies Vol. 5, No. 1; February 2012 86 ISSN 1913-9020 E-ISSN 1913-9039 Effects of Cooperative Learning on Students at An Giang University in Vietnam Van Dat Tran (Corresponding Author) Education 2 Building, Faculty of Education, La Trobe University, Australia Melbourne (Bundoora), Vic 3086, Australia Tel: 61-394-792-611 E-mail: [email protected] Ramon (Rom) Lewis Education 2 Building, Faculty of Education, La Trobe University, Australia
Can Other Animals Acquire Language? Can Other Animals Acquire Language? From: Freedman, Introductory Psychology, 1978 1. Animals other than humans have not developed communication comparable to human language. But is it possible that other animals have the capacity to learn a language if they are adequately taught? Obviously, this is a fascinating notion. The idea of communicating directly with another species has long been part of human folklore and children's fantasies. But on a scientific level, the question of whether animals
Somehow I can't believe that there are any height Somehow I can't believe that there are any heights that can't be scaled by a man who knows the secrets of making dreams come true. This special secret, it seems to me, can be summarized in four C's. They are Curiosity, Confidence, Courage Consistency, and the greatest of all is confidence. When you believe in a thing, believe in it all the way, implicitly unquestionably. Walt Disney EMELY PEREZ PONEETINDER NAGRA RUKHSAR MOHAMMED SARINA NOKES SHARAZ MANZOOR CHANCHAL MAHMUD 1783080157480 Table
Stages in Second Language Acquisition Stages in Second LanguageAcquisition Fransiscus Xaverius Sinaga Ivan Hasiholan Surya Missauri Devis Tanaka Anmar Talent Sinaga Each language has its own set of rules for speaking and writing the language properly, and individuals trying to learn a new language often blur the lines between which set of rules to use. Second language learners also face a certain degree of fear or anxiety about tackling a new language, which can in turn affect how easily or how well they acquire the second languag
MexicoMexico Mexico Country Profile Country Formal Name: United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicans). Short Form: Mexico. Term for Citizen(s): Mexican(s). Capital: Mexico City (called Mééxico or Ciudad de Mééxico in country). Date of Independence: September 16, 1810 (from Spain). National Holidays: May 5, commemorating the victory over the French at the Battle of Puebla; September 16, Independence Day. Mexico Geography Size: 1,972,550 square kilometers--third largest nation in Latin America (after
Brief History of Library Automation: 1930-1996Brief History of Library Automation: 1930-1996 An automated library is one where a computer system is used to manage one or several of the library\'s key functions such as acquisitions, serials control, cataloging, circulation and the public access catalog. When exploring the history of library automation, it is possible to return to past centuries when visionaries well before the computer age created devices to assist with their book lending systems. Even as far back as 1588, the invention of t
European Herald TribuneI. AbstractEuropean Herald TribuneI. Abstract T his project presents a concise detailed analysis of a prospective business plan for an innovative new newspaper known as the European Herald Tribune (EHT), which will be in affiliation with the widely read and respectable International Herald Tribune (IHT). The main goal of the EHT is to become “Europe’s Newspaper.” In order to achieve this thorough research has been conducted on the various aspects that may affect the establishment and the possible future su
Mergers and AcquisitionsMergers and Acquisitions The domestic mergers and acquisitions in the financial services industry have been growing steadily over the past two decades. International mergers between the banks were rare. The share of cross-boarder mergers in the banking industry is low compared to the other industries (Claudia M Buch, Gay le DeLong. Journal of Banking Finance. Amsterdam: Sep 2004.Vol.28, Iss. 9; pg. 2077). The wave of the bank mergers started in the United States in the 1990 and spread to other c
Cross-Cultural Management: Transformations and AdaCross-Cultural Management: Transformations and Adaptations 1. Smiling fish is a: A. a. term used by Middle Easterners to describe American tourists. B. b. French chef working in a Japanese kitchen. C. c. dish served in China in which the fish is still alive. 2. In England, to table an issue or motion means to: A. put it aside until later. B. send it to arbitration. C. bring it up and discuss it. 3. Allah is the Supreme Being of which religious group? A. Shintos B. Buddhists C. Moslems If you ans