judgement of ethics

Almost everyone has heard of the two great philosophers, Plato and Aristotle.
Few people though, know much about their life long achievements. Their own
personal beliefs and philosophies. In order to understand them, we must fist
examine the background of the two philosophers.

Plato was born to an aristocratic family in Athens. When Plato was a child,
his father died, and his mother married Pyrilampes, who was an associate of the
statesman Pericles. As a young individual Plato had political ambitions, but he
became disillusioned by the political leadership in Athens. He eventually became
a disciple of Socrates. Socrates spent his time talking to people about ethical
topics. He hoped by this means to discover definitions of the virtues, thinking
that in learning what virtue is he would become virtuous and that this would
make his life a happy one. He also hoped to expose other people\'s false conceit
of knowledge about ethical matters, thinking that such conceit prevented them
from becoming virtuous and happy. Socrates appealed to some people, but he
repelled many others; he also came to be associated in the public mind with
anti-democratic factions in Athens. In 399 BC, Socrates was tried on a charge of
impiety, convicted, and put to death. Plato witnessed the death of Socrates at
the hands of the Athenian democracy in 399 BC.

By accepting Socrates basic philosophy and dialectical style of debate: the
pursuit of truth through questions, answers, and additional questions. In 387
Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the institution often described as the
first European university. It provided a comprehensive curriculum, including
such subjects as astronomy, biology, mathematics, political theory, and
philosophy. Aristotle was the Academy\'s most prominent student. During his life
time, he had wrote many books towards philosophy, however The Republic is the
one of more important work in the history of European thought. In essence, it
deals with the central problem of how to live a good life; what is justice in
the State, or what would an ideal State be like, and what is a just individual?
These questions also encompass of arts should be encouraged, what form its
government should take, who should do the government and for what rewards, what
is the nature of the soul, and finally what godly sanctions and afterlife should
be though to exist.

However, we must not forget the other great philosopher, Aristotle. He was

in 384 BC. at Stagirus, a Greek colony and seaport on the coast of Thrace.
His father

Nichomachus was court physician to King Amyntas of Macedonian, and from this

Aristotle\'s long association with the Macedonian Court, which considerably

his life. While he was still a boy his father died. At age 17 his guardian,
Proxenus, sent

him to Athens, to complete his education. He joined the Academy and studied

Plato, attending his lectures for a period of twenty years. In the later
years of his

association with Plato and the Academy he began to lecture on his own

especially on the subject of rhetoric. Although he studied under Plato.

fundamentally disagreed with his teacher on just about everything. He could
not bring

himself to think of the world in abstract terms the way Plato did; above all
else, Aristotle

believed that the world could be understood at a fundamental level through
the detailed

observation and cataloging of phenomenon. That is, knowledge. At the death of
Plato in

347 BC, he had wrote many different book. Among them all, one of which
considered to

have greater inference over other is The Politics.

In the contest of The Republic, Plato\'s major political work, is concerned
with the question of justice and therefore with the questions "what is a
just state" and "who is a just individual?" The ideal state,
according to Plato, is composed of three classes. The economic structure of the
state is maintained by the merchant class. Security needs are met by the
military class, and political leadership is provided by the philosopher-kings. A
particular person\'s class is determined by an educational process that begins at
birth and proceeds until that person has reached the maximum level of education
compatible with interest and ability. Those who complete the entire educational
process become philosopher-kings. They are the ones whose minds have been so
developed that they are able to grasp the Forms and, therefore, to make the
wisest decisions.

Furthermore, Plato associates the traditional Greek virtues with the class
structure of the ideal state. Temperance is the unique virtue of the artisan
class; courage is the virtue peculiar to the military class; and wisdom
characterizes the rulers. Justice, the fourth virtue, characterizes society as a
whole. The just state is one in which each